Multimodal federated learning (FL) aims to enrich model training in FL settings where clients are collecting measurements across multiple modalities. However, key challenges to multimodal FL remain unaddressed, particularly in heterogeneous network settings where: (i) the set of modalities collected by each client will be diverse, and (ii) communication limitations prevent clients from uploading all their locally trained modality models to the server. In this paper, we propose multimodal Federated learning with joint Modality and Client selection (mmFedMC), a new FL methodology that can tackle the above-mentioned challenges in multimodal settings. The joint selection algorithm incorporates two main components: (a) A modality selection methodology for each client, which weighs (i) the impact of the modality, gauged by Shapley value analysis, (ii) the modality model size as a gauge of communication overhead, against (iii) the frequency of modality model updates, denoted recency, to enhance generalizability. (b) A client selection strategy for the server based on the local loss of modality model at each client. Experiments on five real-world datasets demonstrate the ability of mmFedMC to achieve comparable accuracy to several baselines while reducing the communication overhead by over 20x. A demo video of our methodology is available at https://liangqiy.com/mmfedmc/.
* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2310.07048
Despite their wide-spread success, Text-to-Image models (T2I) still struggle to produce images that are both aesthetically pleasing and faithful to the user's input text. We introduce DreamSync, a model-agnostic training algorithm by design that improves T2I models to be faithful to the text input. DreamSync builds off a recent insight from TIFA's evaluation framework -- that large vision-language models (VLMs) can effectively identify the fine-grained discrepancies between generated images and the text inputs. DreamSync uses this insight to train T2I models without any labeled data; it improves T2I models using its own generations. First, it prompts the model to generate several candidate images for a given input text. Then, it uses two VLMs to select the best generation: a Visual Question Answering model that measures the alignment of generated images to the text, and another that measures the generation's aesthetic quality. After selection, we use LoRA to iteratively finetune the T2I model to guide its generation towards the selected best generations. DreamSync does not need any additional human annotation. model architecture changes, or reinforcement learning. Despite its simplicity, DreamSync improves both the semantic alignment and aesthetic appeal of two diffusion-based T2I models, evidenced by multiple benchmarks (+1.7% on TIFA, +2.9% on DSG1K, +3.4% on VILA aesthetic) and human evaluation.
The conventional federated learning (FedL) architecture distributes machine learning (ML) across worker devices by having them train local models that are periodically aggregated by a server. FedL ignores two important characteristics of contemporary wireless networks, however: (i) the network may contain heterogeneous communication/computation resources, and (ii) there may be significant overlaps in devices' local data distributions. In this work, we develop a novel optimization methodology that jointly accounts for these factors via intelligent device sampling complemented by device-to-device (D2D) offloading. Our optimization methodology aims to select the best combination of sampled nodes and data offloading configuration to maximize FedL training accuracy while minimizing data processing and D2D communication resource consumption subject to realistic constraints on the network topology and device capabilities. Theoretical analysis of the D2D offloading subproblem leads to new FedL convergence bounds and an efficient sequential convex optimizer. Using these results, we develop a sampling methodology based on graph convolutional networks (GCNs) which learns the relationship between network attributes, sampled nodes, and D2D data offloading to maximize FedL accuracy. Through evaluation on popular datasets and real-world network measurements from our edge testbed, we find that our methodology outperforms popular device sampling methodologies from literature in terms of ML model performance, data processing overhead, and energy consumption.
* Submitted to IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking. arXiv admin note:
substantial text overlap with arXiv:2101.00787
The accurate and robust calibration result of sensors is considered as an important building block to the follow-up research in the autonomous driving and robotics domain. The current works involving extrinsic calibration between 3D LiDARs and monocular cameras mainly focus on target-based and target-less methods. The target-based methods are often utilized offline because of restrictions, such as additional target design and target placement limits. The current target-less methods suffer from feature indeterminacy and feature mismatching in various environments. To alleviate these limitations, we propose a novel target-less calibration approach which is based on the 2D-3D edge point extraction using the occlusion relationship in 3D space. Based on the extracted 2D-3D point pairs, we further propose an occlusion-guided point-matching method that improves the calibration accuracy and reduces computation costs. To validate the effectiveness of our approach, we evaluate the method performance qualitatively and quantitatively on real images from the KITTI dataset. The results demonstrate that our method outperforms the existing target-less methods and achieves low error and high robustness that can contribute to the practical applications relying on high-quality Camera-LiDAR calibration.
Evaluating text-to-image models is notoriously difficult. A strong recent approach for assessing text-image faithfulness is based on QG/A (question generation and answering), which uses pre-trained foundational models to automatically generate a set of questions and answers from the prompt, and output images are scored based on whether these answers extracted with a visual question answering model are consistent with the prompt-based answers. This kind of evaluation is naturally dependent on the quality of the underlying QG and QA models. We identify and address several reliability challenges in existing QG/A work: (a) QG questions should respect the prompt (avoiding hallucinations, duplications, and omissions) and (b) VQA answers should be consistent (not asserting that there is no motorcycle in an image while also claiming the motorcycle is blue). We address these issues with Davidsonian Scene Graph (DSG), an empirically grounded evaluation framework inspired by formal semantics. DSG is an automatic, graph-based QG/A that is modularly implemented to be adaptable to any QG/A module. DSG produces atomic and unique questions organized in dependency graphs, which (i) ensure appropriate semantic coverage and (ii) sidestep inconsistent answers. With extensive experimentation and human evaluation on a range of model configurations (LLM, VQA, and T2I), we empirically demonstrate that DSG addresses the challenges noted above. Finally, we present DSG-1k, an open-sourced evaluation benchmark that includes 1,060 prompts, covering a wide range of fine-grained semantic categories with a balanced distribution. We release the DSG-1k prompts and the corresponding DSG questions.
There has been recent interest in leveraging federated learning (FL) for radio signal classification tasks. In FL, model parameters are periodically communicated from participating devices, which train on local datasets, to a central server which aggregates them into a global model. While FL has privacy/security advantages due to raw data not leaving the devices, it is still susceptible to adversarial attacks. In this work, we first reveal the susceptibility of FL-based signal classifiers to model poisoning attacks, which compromise the training process despite not observing data transmissions. In this capacity, we develop an attack framework that significantly degrades the training process of the global model. Our attack framework induces a more potent model poisoning attack to the global classifier than existing baselines while also being able to compromise existing server-driven defenses. In response to this gap, we develop Underlying Server Defense of Federated Learning (USD-FL), a novel defense methodology for FL-based signal classifiers. We subsequently compare the defensive efficacy, runtimes, and false positive detection rates of USD-FL relative to existing server-driven defenses, showing that USD-FL has notable advantages over the baseline defenses in all three areas.
* Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Cognitive Communications and
Networking. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2301.08866
Heterogeneity across devices in federated learning (FL) typically refers to statistical (e.g., non-i.i.d. data distributions) and resource (e.g., communication bandwidth) dimensions. In this paper, we focus on another important dimension that has received less attention: varying quantities/distributions of labeled and unlabeled data across devices. In order to leverage all data, we develop a decentralized federated domain adaptation methodology which considers the transfer of ML models from devices with high quality labeled data (called sources) to devices with low quality or unlabeled data (called targets). Our methodology, Source-Target Determination and Link Formation (ST-LF), optimizes both (i) classification of devices into sources and targets and (ii) source-target link formation, in a manner that considers the trade-off between ML model accuracy and communication energy efficiency. To obtain a concrete objective function, we derive a measurable generalization error bound that accounts for estimates of source-target hypothesis deviations and divergences between data distributions. The resulting optimization problem is a mixed-integer signomial program, a class of NP-hard problems, for which we develop an algorithm based on successive convex approximations to solve it tractably. Subsequent numerical evaluations of ST-LF demonstrate that it improves classification accuracy and energy efficiency over state-of-the-art baselines.
* Submitted To IEEE Transactions on Cognitive Communications and
Federated learning (FL) has been promoted as a popular technique for training machine learning (ML) models over edge/fog networks. Traditional implementations of FL have largely neglected the potential for inter-network cooperation, treating edge/fog devices and other infrastructure participating in ML as separate processing elements. Consequently, FL has been vulnerable to several dimensions of network heterogeneity, such as varying computation capabilities, communication resources, data qualities, and privacy demands. We advocate for cooperative federated learning (CFL), a cooperative edge/fog ML paradigm built on device-to-device (D2D) and device-to-server (D2S) interactions. Through D2D and D2S cooperation, CFL counteracts network heterogeneity in edge/fog networks through enabling a model/data/resource pooling mechanism, which will yield substantial improvements in ML model training quality and network resource consumption. We propose a set of core methodologies that form the foundation of D2D and D2S cooperation and present preliminary experiments that demonstrate their benefits. We also discuss new FL functionalities enabled by this cooperative framework such as the integration of unlabeled data and heterogeneous device privacy into ML model training. Finally, we describe some open research directions at the intersection of cooperative edge/fog and FL.
* This paper has been accepted for publication in IEEE Communications
Recent advances in robot learning have shown promise in enabling robots to perform a variety of manipulation tasks and generalize to novel scenarios. One of the key contributing factors to this progress is the scale of robot data used to train the models. To obtain large-scale datasets, prior approaches have relied on either demonstrations requiring high human involvement or engineering-heavy autonomous data collection schemes, both of which are challenging to scale. To mitigate this issue, we propose an alternative route and leverage text-to-image foundation models widely used in computer vision and natural language processing to obtain meaningful data for robot learning without requiring additional robot data. We term our method Robot Learning with Semantically Imagened Experience (ROSIE). Specifically, we make use of the state of the art text-to-image diffusion models and perform aggressive data augmentation on top of our existing robotic manipulation datasets via inpainting various unseen objects for manipulation, backgrounds, and distractors with text guidance. Through extensive real-world experiments, we show that manipulation policies trained on data augmented this way are able to solve completely unseen tasks with new objects and can behave more robustly w.r.t. novel distractors. In addition, we find that we can improve the robustness and generalization of high-level robot learning tasks such as success detection through training with the diffusion-based data augmentation. The project's website and videos can be found at diffusion-rosie.github.io
There has been recent interest in leveraging federated learning (FL) for radio signal classification tasks. In FL, model parameters are periodically communicated from participating devices, training on their own local datasets, to a central server which aggregates them into a global model. While FL has privacy/security advantages due to raw data not leaving the devices, it is still susceptible to several adversarial attacks. In this work, we reveal the susceptibility of FL-based signal classifiers to model poisoning attacks, which compromise the training process despite not observing data transmissions. In this capacity, we develop an attack framework in which compromised FL devices perturb their local datasets using adversarial evasion attacks. As a result, the training process of the global model significantly degrades on in-distribution signals (i.e., signals received over channels with identical distributions at each edge device). We compare our work to previously proposed FL attacks and reveal that as few as one adversarial device operating with a low-powered perturbation under our attack framework can induce the potent model poisoning attack to the global classifier. Moreover, we find that more devices partaking in adversarial poisoning will proportionally degrade the classification performance.