Sequential location recommendation plays a huge role in modern life, which can enhance user experience, bring more profit to businesses and assist in government administration. Although methods for location recommendation have evolved significantly thanks to the development of recommendation systems, there is still limited utilization of geographic information, along with the ongoing challenge of addressing data sparsity. In response, we introduce a Proximity-aware based region representation for Sequential Recommendation (PASR for short), built upon the Self-Attention Network architecture. We tackle the sparsity issue through a novel loss function employing importance sampling, which emphasizes informative negative samples during optimization. Moreover, PASR enhances the integration of geographic information by employing a self-attention-based geography encoder to the hierarchical grid and proximity grid at each GPS point. To further leverage geographic information, we utilize the proximity-aware negative samplers to enhance the quality of negative samples. We conducted evaluations using three real-world Location-Based Social Networking (LBSN) datasets, demonstrating that PASR surpasses state-of-the-art sequential location recommendation methods
Large language models (LLMs), like ChatGPT, have shown some human-like cognitive abilities. For comparing these abilities of different models, several benchmarks (i.e. sets of standard test questions) from different fields (e.g., Literature, Biology and Psychology) are often adopted and the test results under traditional metrics such as accuracy, recall and F1, are reported. However, such way for evaluating LLMs can be inefficient and inaccurate from the cognitive science perspective. Inspired by Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) used in psychometrics, we propose an adaptive testing framework for LLM evaluation. Rather than using a standard test set and simply reporting accuracy, this approach dynamically adjusts the characteristics of the test questions, such as difficulty, based on the model's performance. This allows for a more accurate estimation of the model's abilities, using fewer questions. More importantly, it allows LLMs to be compared with humans easily, which is essential for NLP models that aim for human-level ability. Our diagnostic reports have found that ChatGPT often behaves like a ``careless student'', prone to slip and occasionally guessing the questions. We conduct a fine-grained diagnosis and rank the latest 6 instruction-tuned LLMs from three aspects of Subject Knowledge, Mathematical Reasoning, and Programming, where GPT4 can outperform other models significantly and reach the cognitive ability of middle-level students. Different tests for different models using efficient adaptive testing -- we believe this has the potential to become a new norm in evaluating large language models.
Nearest neighbor machine translation augments the Autoregressive Translation~(AT) with $k$-nearest-neighbor retrieval, by comparing the similarity between the token-level context representations of the target tokens in the query and the datastore. However, the token-level representation may introduce noise when translating ambiguous words, or fail to provide accurate retrieval results when the representation generated by the model contains indistinguishable context information, e.g., Non-Autoregressive Translation~(NAT) models. In this paper, we propose a novel $n$-gram nearest neighbor retrieval method that is model agnostic and applicable to both AT and NAT models. Specifically, we concatenate the adjacent $n$-gram hidden representations as the key, while the tuple of corresponding target tokens is the value. In inference, we propose tailored decoding algorithms for AT and NAT models respectively. We demonstrate that the proposed method consistently outperforms the token-level method on both AT and NAT models as well on general as on domain adaptation translation tasks. On domain adaptation, the proposed method brings $1.03$ and $2.76$ improvements regarding the average BLEU score on AT and NAT models respectively.
Discovering new intents is a crucial task in a dialogue system. Most existing methods are limited in transferring the prior knowledge from known intents to new intents. These methods also have difficulties in providing high-quality supervised signals to learn clustering-friendly features for grouping unlabeled intents. In this work, we propose an effective method (Deep Aligned Clustering) to discover new intents with the aid of limited known intent data. Firstly, we leverage a few labeled known intent samples as prior knowledge to pre-train the model. Then, we perform k-means to produce cluster assignments as pseudo-labels. Moreover, we propose an alignment strategy to tackle the label inconsistency during clustering assignments. Finally, we learn the intent representations under the supervision of the aligned pseudo-labels. With an unknown number of new intents, we predict the number of intent categories by eliminating low-confidence intent-wise clusters. Extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets show that our method is more robust and achieves substantial improvements over the state-of-the-art methods.(Code available at https://github.com/hanleizhang/DeepAligned-Clustering)