Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Daniel Severo, Lucas Theis, Johannes Ballé

We show how perceptual embeddings of the visual system can be constructed at inference-time with no training data or deep neural network features. Our perceptual embeddings are solutions to a weighted least squares (WLS) problem, defined at the pixel-level, and solved at inference-time, that can capture global and local image characteristics. The distance in embedding space is used to define a perceptual similarity metric which we call LASI: Linear Autoregressive Similarity Index. Experiments on full-reference image quality assessment datasets show LASI performs competitively with learned deep feature based methods like LPIPS (Zhang et al., 2018) and PIM (Bhardwaj et al., 2020), at a similar computational cost to hand-crafted methods such as MS-SSIM (Wang et al., 2003). We found that increasing the dimensionality of the embedding space consistently reduces the WLS loss while increasing performance on perceptual tasks, at the cost of increasing the computational complexity. LASI is fully differentiable, scales cubically with the number of embedding dimensions, and can be parallelized at the pixel-level. A Maximum Differentiation (MAD) competition (Wang & Simoncelli, 2008) between LASI and LPIPS shows that both methods are capable of finding failure points for the other, suggesting these metrics can be combined.

Via

Daniel Severo, James Townsend, Ashish Khisti, Alireza Makhzani

We present a one-shot method for compressing large labeled graphs called Random Edge Coding. When paired with a parameter-free model based on P\'olya's Urn, the worst-case computational and memory complexities scale quasi-linearly and linearly with the number of observed edges, making it efficient on sparse graphs, and requires only integer arithmetic. Key to our method is bits-back coding, which is used to sample edges and vertices without replacement from the edge-list in a way that preserves the structure of the graph. Optimality is proven under a class of random graph models that are invariant to permutations of the edges and of vertices within an edge. Experiments indicate Random Edge Coding can achieve competitive compression performance on real-world network datasets and scales to graphs with millions of nodes and edges.

Via

Kirill Neklyudov, Daniel Severo, Alireza Makhzani

Stochastic dynamics are ubiquitous in many fields of science, from the evolution of quantum systems in physics to diffusion-based models in machine learning. Existing methods such as score matching can be used to simulate these physical processes by assuming that the dynamics is a diffusion, which is not always the case. In this work, we propose a method called "Action Matching" that enables us to learn a much broader family of stochastic dynamics. Our method requires access only to samples from different time-steps, makes no explicit assumptions about the underlying dynamics, and can be applied even when samples are uncorrelated (i.e., are not part of a trajectory). Action Matching directly learns an underlying mechanism to move samples in time without modeling the distributions at each time-step. In this work, we showcase how Action Matching can be used for several computer vision tasks such as generative modeling, super-resolution, colorization, and inpainting; and further discuss potential applications in other areas of science.

Via

Daniel Severo, James Townsend, Ashish Khisti, Alireza Makhzani, Karen Ullrich

Current methods that optimally compress multisets are not suitable for high-dimensional symbols, as their compute time scales linearly with alphabet size. Compressing a multiset as an ordered sequence with off-the-shelf codecs is computationally more efficient, but has a sub-optimal compression rate, as bits are wasted encoding the order between symbols. We present a method that can recover those bits, assuming symbols are i.i.d., at the cost of an additional $\mathcal{O}(|\mathcal{M}|\log M)$ in average time complexity, where $|\mathcal{M}|$ and $M$ are the total and unique number of symbols in the multiset. Our method is compatible with any prefix-free code. Experiments show that, when paired with efficient coders, our method can efficiently compress high-dimensional sources such as multisets of images and collections of JSON files.

Via

Daniel Severo, Elad Domanovitz, Ashish Khisti

Traditionally, quantization is designed to minimize the reconstruction error of a data source. When considering downstream classification tasks, other measures of distortion can be of interest; such as the 0-1 classification loss. Furthermore, it is desirable that the performance of these quantizers not deteriorate once they are deployed into production, as relearning the scheme online is not always possible. In this work, we present a class of algorithms that learn distributed quantization schemes for binary classification tasks. Our method performs well on unseen data, and is faster than previous methods proportional to a quadratic term of the dataset size. It works by regularizing the 0-1 loss with the reconstruction error. We present experiments on synthetic mixture and bivariate Gaussian data and compare training, testing, and generalization errors with a family of benchmark quantization schemes from the literature. Our method is called Regularized Classification-Aware Quantization.

Via

Yangjun Ruan, Karen Ullrich, Daniel Severo, James Townsend, Ashish Khisti, Arnaud Doucet, Alireza Makhzani, Chris J. Maddison

Latent variable models have been successfully applied in lossless compression with the bits-back coding algorithm. However, bits-back suffers from an increase in the bitrate equal to the KL divergence between the approximate posterior and the true posterior. In this paper, we show how to remove this gap asymptotically by deriving bits-back coding algorithms from tighter variational bounds. The key idea is to exploit extended space representations of Monte Carlo estimators of the marginal likelihood. Naively applied, our schemes would require more initial bits than the standard bits-back coder, but we show how to drastically reduce this additional cost with couplings in the latent space. When parallel architectures can be exploited, our coders can achieve better rates than bits-back with little additional cost. We demonstrate improved lossless compression rates in a variety of settings, including entropy coding for lossy compression.

Via

Arthur D. Reys, Danilo Silva, Daniel Severo, Saulo Pedro, Marcia M. de Souza e Sá, Guilherme A. C. Salgado

ICD coding from electronic clinical records is a manual, time-consuming and expensive process. Code assignment is, however, an important task for billing purposes and database organization. While many works have studied the problem of automated ICD coding from free text using machine learning techniques, most use records in the English language, especially from the MIMIC-III public dataset. This work presents results for a dataset with Brazilian Portuguese clinical notes. We develop and optimize a Logistic Regression model, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), a Gated Recurrent Unit Neural Network and a CNN with Attention (CNN-Att) for prediction of diagnosis ICD codes. We also report our results for the MIMIC-III dataset, which outperform previous work among models of the same families, as well as the state of the art. Compared to MIMIC-III, the Brazilian Portuguese dataset contains far fewer words per document, when only discharge summaries are used. We experiment concatenating additional documents available in this dataset, achieving a great boost in performance. The CNN-Att model achieves the best results on both datasets, with micro-averaged F1 score of 0.537 on MIMIC-III and 0.485 on our dataset with additional documents.

Via

Daniel Severo, Flávio Amaro, Estevam R. Hruschka Jr, André Soares de Moura Costa

We present a proxy dataset of vital signs with class labels indicating patient transitions from the ward to intensive care units called Ward2ICU. Patient privacy is protected using a Wasserstein Generative Adversarial Network to implicitly learn an approximation of the data distribution, allowing us to sample synthetic data. The quality of data generation is assessed directly on the binary classification task by comparing specificity and sensitivity of an LSTM classifier on proxy and original datasets. We initialize a discussion of unintentionally disclosing commercial sensitive information and propose a solution for a special case through class label balancing

Via