LLM-based agents have recently emerged as promising tools for solving challenging problems without the need for task-specific finetuned models that can be expensive to procure. Currently, the design and implementation of such agents is ad hoc, as the wide variety of tasks that LLM-based agents may be applied to naturally means there can be no one-size-fits-all approach to agent design. In this work we aim to alleviate the difficulty of designing and implementing new agents by proposing a minimalistic, high-level generation framework that simplifies the process of building agents. The framework we introduce allows the user to specify desired agent behaviors in Linear Temporal Logic (LTL). The declarative LTL specification is then used to construct a constrained decoder that guarantees the LLM will produce an output exhibiting the desired behavior. By designing our framework in this way, we obtain several benefits, including the ability to enforce complex agent behavior, the ability to formally validate prompt examples, and the ability to seamlessly incorporate content-focused logical constraints into generation. In particular, our declarative approach, in which the desired behavior is simply described without concern for how it should be implemented or enforced, enables rapid design, implementation and experimentation with different LLM-based agents. We demonstrate how the proposed framework can be used to implement recent LLM-based agents, and show how the guardrails our approach provides can lead to improvements in agent performance. In addition, we release our code for general use.
Text-based reinforcement learning agents have predominantly been neural network-based models with embeddings-based representation, learning uninterpretable policies that often do not generalize well to unseen games. On the other hand, neuro-symbolic methods, specifically those that leverage an intermediate formal representation, are gaining significant attention in language understanding tasks. This is because of their advantages ranging from inherent interpretability, the lesser requirement of training data, and being generalizable in scenarios with unseen data. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a modular, NEuro-Symbolic Textual Agent (NESTA) that combines a generic semantic parser with a rule induction system to learn abstract interpretable rules as policies. Our experiments on established text-based game benchmarks show that the proposed NESTA method outperforms deep reinforcement learning-based techniques by achieving better generalization to unseen test games and learning from fewer training interactions.
With the growing interest in large language models, the need for evaluating the quality of machine text compared to reference (typically human-generated) text has become focal attention. Most recent works focus either on task-specific evaluation metrics or study the properties of machine-generated text captured by the existing metrics. In this work, we propose a new evaluation scheme to model human judgments in 7 NLP tasks, based on the fine-grained mismatches between a pair of texts. Inspired by the recent efforts in several NLP tasks for fine-grained evaluation, we introduce a set of 13 mismatch error types such as spatial/geographic errors, entity errors, etc, to guide the model for better prediction of human judgments. We propose a neural framework for evaluating machine texts that uses these mismatch error types as auxiliary tasks and re-purposes the existing single-number evaluation metrics as additional scalar features, in addition to textual features extracted from the machine and reference texts. Our experiments reveal key insights about the existing metrics via the mismatch errors. We show that the mismatch errors between the sentence pairs on the held-out datasets from 7 NLP tasks align well with the human evaluation.
We introduce Logical Offline Cycle Consistency Optimization (LOCCO), a scalable, semi-supervised method for training a neural semantic parser. Conceptually, LOCCO can be viewed as a form of self-learning where the semantic parser being trained is used to generate annotations for unlabeled text that are then used as new supervision. To increase the quality of annotations, our method utilizes a count-based prior over valid formal meaning representations and a cycle-consistency score produced by a neural text generation model as additional signals. Both the prior and semantic parser are updated in an alternate fashion from full passes over the training data, which can be seen as approximating the marginalization of latent structures through stochastic variational inference. The use of a count-based prior, frozen text generation model, and offline annotation process yields an approach with negligible complexity and latency increases as compared to conventional self-learning. As an added bonus, the annotations produced by LOCCO can be trivially repurposed to train a neural text generation model. We demonstrate the utility of LOCCO on the well-known WebNLG benchmark where we obtain an improvement of 2 points against a self-learning parser under equivalent conditions, an improvement of 1.3 points against the previous state-of-the-art parser, and competitive text generation performance in terms of BLEU score.
Nearly all general-purpose neural semantic parsers generate logical forms in a strictly top-down autoregressive fashion. Though such systems have achieved impressive results across a variety of datasets and domains, recent works have called into question whether they are ultimately limited in their ability to compositionally generalize. In this work, we approach semantic parsing from, quite literally, the opposite direction; that is, we introduce a neural semantic parsing generation method that constructs logical forms from the bottom up, beginning from the logical form's leaves. The system we introduce is lazy in that it incrementally builds up a set of potential semantic parses, but only expands and processes the most promising candidate parses at each generation step. Such a parsimonious expansion scheme allows the system to maintain an arbitrarily large set of parse hypotheses that are never realized and thus incur minimal computational overhead. We evaluate our approach on compositional generalization; specifically, on the challenging CFQ dataset and three Text-to-SQL datasets where we show that our novel, bottom-up semantic parsing technique outperforms general-purpose semantic parsers while also being competitive with comparable neural parsers that have been designed for each task.
Knowledge bases (KBs) are often incomplete and constantly changing in practice. Yet, in many question answering applications coupled with knowledge bases, the sparse nature of KBs is often overlooked. To this end, we propose a case-based reasoning approach, CBR-iKB, for knowledge base question answering (KBQA) with incomplete-KB as our main focus. Our method ensembles decisions from multiple reasoning chains with a novel nonparametric reasoning algorithm. By design, CBR-iKB can seamlessly adapt to changes in KBs without any task-specific training or fine-tuning. Our method achieves 100% accuracy on MetaQA and establishes new state-of-the-art on multiple benchmarks. For instance, CBR-iKB achieves an accuracy of 70% on WebQSP under the incomplete-KB setting, outperforming the existing state-of-the-art method by 22.3%.
Knowledge Base Question Answering (KBQA) tasks that involve complex reasoning are emerging as an important research direction. However, most existing KBQA datasets focus primarily on generic multi-hop reasoning over explicit facts, largely ignoring other reasoning types such as temporal, spatial, and taxonomic reasoning. In this paper, we present a benchmark dataset for temporal reasoning, TempQA-WD, to encourage research in extending the present approaches to target a more challenging set of complex reasoning tasks. Specifically, our benchmark is a temporal question answering dataset with the following advantages: (a) it is based on Wikidata, which is the most frequently curated, openly available knowledge base, (b) it includes intermediate sparql queries to facilitate the evaluation of semantic parsing based approaches for KBQA, and (c) it generalizes to multiple knowledge bases: Freebase and Wikidata. The TempQA-WD dataset is available at https://github.com/IBM/tempqa-wd.
* 7 pages, 2 figures, 7 tables. arXiv admin note: substantial text
overlap with arXiv:2109.13430
We propose a transition-based system to transpile Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) into SPARQL for Knowledge Base Question Answering (KBQA). This allows to delegate part of the abstraction problem to a strongly pre-trained semantic parser, while learning transpiling with small amount of paired data. We departure from recent work relating AMR and SPARQL constructs, but rather than applying a set of rules, we teach the BART model to selectively use these relations. Further, we avoid explicitly encoding AMR but rather encode the parser state in the attention mechanism of BART, following recent semantic parsing works. The resulting model is simple, provides supporting text for its decisions, and outperforms recent progress in AMR-based KBQA in LC-QuAD (F1 53.4), matching it in QALD (F1 30.8), while exploiting the same inductive biases.
Most existing approaches for Knowledge Base Question Answering (KBQA) focus on a specific underlying knowledge base either because of inherent assumptions in the approach, or because evaluating it on a different knowledge base requires non-trivial changes. However, many popular knowledge bases share similarities in their underlying schemas that can be leveraged to facilitate generalization across knowledge bases. To achieve this generalization, we introduce a KBQA framework based on a 2-stage architecture that explicitly separates semantic parsing from the knowledge base interaction, facilitating transfer learning across datasets and knowledge graphs. We show that pretraining on datasets with a different underlying knowledge base can nevertheless provide significant performance gains and reduce sample complexity. Our approach achieves comparable or state-of-the-art performance for LC-QuAD (DBpedia), WebQSP (Freebase), SimpleQuestions (Wikidata) and MetaQA (Wikimovies-KG).