LLM-based agents have recently emerged as promising tools for solving challenging problems without the need for task-specific finetuned models that can be expensive to procure. Currently, the design and implementation of such agents is ad hoc, as the wide variety of tasks that LLM-based agents may be applied to naturally means there can be no one-size-fits-all approach to agent design. In this work we aim to alleviate the difficulty of designing and implementing new agents by proposing a minimalistic, high-level generation framework that simplifies the process of building agents. The framework we introduce allows the user to specify desired agent behaviors in Linear Temporal Logic (LTL). The declarative LTL specification is then used to construct a constrained decoder that guarantees the LLM will produce an output exhibiting the desired behavior. By designing our framework in this way, we obtain several benefits, including the ability to enforce complex agent behavior, the ability to formally validate prompt examples, and the ability to seamlessly incorporate content-focused logical constraints into generation. In particular, our declarative approach, in which the desired behavior is simply described without concern for how it should be implemented or enforced, enables rapid design, implementation and experimentation with different LLM-based agents. We demonstrate how the proposed framework can be used to implement recent LLM-based agents, and show how the guardrails our approach provides can lead to improvements in agent performance. In addition, we release our code for general use.
Within enterprises, there is a growing need to intelligently navigate data lakes, specifically focusing on data discovery. Of particular importance to enterprises is the ability to find related tables in data repositories. These tables can be unionable, joinable, or subsets of each other. There is a dearth of benchmarks for these tasks in the public domain, with related work targeting private datasets. In LakeBench, we develop multiple benchmarks for these tasks by using the tables that are drawn from a diverse set of data sources such as government data from CKAN, Socrata, and the European Central Bank. We compare the performance of 4 publicly available tabular foundational models on these tasks. None of the existing models had been trained on the data discovery tasks that we developed for this benchmark; not surprisingly, their performance shows significant room for improvement. The results suggest that the establishment of such benchmarks may be useful to the community to build tabular models usable for data discovery in data lakes.
With the growing interest in large language models, the need for evaluating the quality of machine text compared to reference (typically human-generated) text has become focal attention. Most recent works focus either on task-specific evaluation metrics or study the properties of machine-generated text captured by the existing metrics. In this work, we propose a new evaluation scheme to model human judgments in 7 NLP tasks, based on the fine-grained mismatches between a pair of texts. Inspired by the recent efforts in several NLP tasks for fine-grained evaluation, we introduce a set of 13 mismatch error types such as spatial/geographic errors, entity errors, etc, to guide the model for better prediction of human judgments. We propose a neural framework for evaluating machine texts that uses these mismatch error types as auxiliary tasks and re-purposes the existing single-number evaluation metrics as additional scalar features, in addition to textual features extracted from the machine and reference texts. Our experiments reveal key insights about the existing metrics via the mismatch errors. We show that the mismatch errors between the sentence pairs on the held-out datasets from 7 NLP tasks align well with the human evaluation.
Using reinforcement learning for automated theorem proving has recently received much attention. Current approaches use representations of logical statements that often rely on the names used in these statements and, as a result, the models are generally not transferable from one domain to another. The size of these representations and whether to include the whole theory or part of it are other important decisions that affect the performance of these approaches as well as their runtime efficiency. In this paper, we present NIAGRA; an ensemble Name InvAriant Graph RepresentAtion. NIAGRA addresses this problem by using 1) improved Graph Neural Networks for learning name-invariant formula representations that is tailored for their unique characteristics and 2) an efficient ensemble approach for automated theorem proving. Our experimental evaluation shows state-of-the-art performance on multiple datasets from different domains with improvements up to 10% compared to the best learning-based approaches. Furthermore, transfer learning experiments show that our approach significantly outperforms other learning-based approaches by up to 28%.
Dynamically typed languages such as Python have become very popular. Among other strengths, Python's dynamic nature and its straightforward linking to native code have made it the de-facto language for many research areas such as Artificial Intelligence. This flexibility, however, makes static analysis very hard. While creating a sound, or a soundy, analysis for Python remains an open problem, we present in this work Serenity, a framework for static analysis of Python that turns out to be sufficient for some tasks. The Serenity framework exploits two basic mechanisms: (a) reliance on dynamic dispatch at the core of language translation, and (b) extreme abstraction of libraries, to generate an abstraction of the code. We demonstrate the efficiency and usefulness of Serenity's analysis in two applications: code completion and automated machine learning. In these two applications, we demonstrate that such analysis has a strong signal, and can be leveraged to establish state-of-the-art performance, comparable to neural models and dynamic analysis respectively.
Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Property Graph (PG) are the two most commonly used data models for representing, storing, and querying graph data. We present Expressive Reasoning Graph Store (ERGS) -- a graph store built on top of JanusGraph (a Property Graph store) that also allows storing and querying of RDF datasets. First, we describe how RDF data can be translated into a Property Graph representation and then describe a query translation module that converts SPARQL queries into a series of Gremlin traversals. The converters and translators thus developed can allow any Apache Tinkerpop compliant graph database to store and query RDF datasets. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach using JanusGraph as the base Property Graph store and compare its performance with standard RDF systems.
Knowledge bases (KBs) are often incomplete and constantly changing in practice. Yet, in many question answering applications coupled with knowledge bases, the sparse nature of KBs is often overlooked. To this end, we propose a case-based reasoning approach, CBR-iKB, for knowledge base question answering (KBQA) with incomplete-KB as our main focus. Our method ensembles decisions from multiple reasoning chains with a novel nonparametric reasoning algorithm. By design, CBR-iKB can seamlessly adapt to changes in KBs without any task-specific training or fine-tuning. Our method achieves 100% accuracy on MetaQA and establishes new state-of-the-art on multiple benchmarks. For instance, CBR-iKB achieves an accuracy of 70% on WebQSP under the incomplete-KB setting, outperforming the existing state-of-the-art method by 22.3%.
Knowledge Base Question Answering (KBQA) tasks that involve complex reasoning are emerging as an important research direction. However, most existing KBQA datasets focus primarily on generic multi-hop reasoning over explicit facts, largely ignoring other reasoning types such as temporal, spatial, and taxonomic reasoning. In this paper, we present a benchmark dataset for temporal reasoning, TempQA-WD, to encourage research in extending the present approaches to target a more challenging set of complex reasoning tasks. Specifically, our benchmark is a temporal question answering dataset with the following advantages: (a) it is based on Wikidata, which is the most frequently curated, openly available knowledge base, (b) it includes intermediate sparql queries to facilitate the evaluation of semantic parsing based approaches for KBQA, and (c) it generalizes to multiple knowledge bases: Freebase and Wikidata. The TempQA-WD dataset is available at https://github.com/IBM/tempqa-wd.
* 7 pages, 2 figures, 7 tables. arXiv admin note: substantial text
overlap with arXiv:2109.13430
We propose a transition-based system to transpile Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) into SPARQL for Knowledge Base Question Answering (KBQA). This allows to delegate part of the abstraction problem to a strongly pre-trained semantic parser, while learning transpiling with small amount of paired data. We departure from recent work relating AMR and SPARQL constructs, but rather than applying a set of rules, we teach the BART model to selectively use these relations. Further, we avoid explicitly encoding AMR but rather encode the parser state in the attention mechanism of BART, following recent semantic parsing works. The resulting model is simple, provides supporting text for its decisions, and outperforms recent progress in AMR-based KBQA in LC-QuAD (F1 53.4), matching it in QALD (F1 30.8), while exploiting the same inductive biases.
Most existing approaches for Knowledge Base Question Answering (KBQA) focus on a specific underlying knowledge base either because of inherent assumptions in the approach, or because evaluating it on a different knowledge base requires non-trivial changes. However, many popular knowledge bases share similarities in their underlying schemas that can be leveraged to facilitate generalization across knowledge bases. To achieve this generalization, we introduce a KBQA framework based on a 2-stage architecture that explicitly separates semantic parsing from the knowledge base interaction, facilitating transfer learning across datasets and knowledge graphs. We show that pretraining on datasets with a different underlying knowledge base can nevertheless provide significant performance gains and reduce sample complexity. Our approach achieves comparable or state-of-the-art performance for LC-QuAD (DBpedia), WebQSP (Freebase), SimpleQuestions (Wikidata) and MetaQA (Wikimovies-KG).