In this work, we develop an Aligned Entropic Reproducing Kernel (AERK) for graph classification. We commence by performing the Continuous-time Quantum Walk (CTQW) on each graph structure, and computing the Averaged Mixing Matrix (AMM) to describe how the CTQW visit all vertices from a starting vertex. More specifically, we show how this AMM matrix allows us to compute a quantum Shannon entropy for each vertex of a graph. For pairwise graphs, the proposed AERK kernel is defined by computing a reproducing kernel based similarity between the quantum Shannon entropies of their each pair of aligned vertices. The analysis of theoretical properties reveals that the proposed AERK kernel cannot only address the shortcoming of neglecting the structural correspondence information between graphs arising in most existing R-convolution graph kernels, but also overcome the problem of neglecting the structural differences between pairs of aligned vertices arising in existing vertex-based matching kernels. Moreover, unlike existing classical graph kernels that only focus on the global or local structural information of graphs, the proposed AERK kernel can simultaneously capture both global and local structural information through the quantum Shannon entropies, reflecting more precise kernel based similarity measures between pairs of graphs. The above theoretical properties explain the effectiveness of the proposed kernel. The experimental evaluation on standard graph datasets demonstrates that the proposed AERK kernel is able to outperform state-of-the-art graph kernels for graph classification tasks.
In this paper, we propose a novel graph kernel, namely the Quantum-based Entropic Subtree Kernel (QESK), for Graph Classification. To this end, we commence by computing the Average Mixing Matrix (AMM) of the Continuous-time Quantum Walk (CTQW) evolved on each graph structure. Moreover, we show how this AMM matrix can be employed to compute a series of entropic subtree representations associated with the classical Weisfeiler-Lehman (WL) algorithm. For a pair of graphs, the QESK kernel is defined by computing the exponentiation of the negative Euclidean distance between their entropic subtree representations, theoretically resulting in a positive definite graph kernel. We show that the proposed QESK kernel not only encapsulates complicated intrinsic quantum-based structural characteristics of graph structures through the CTQW, but also theoretically addresses the shortcoming of ignoring the effects of unshared substructures arising in state-of-the-art R-convolution graph kernels. Moreover, unlike the classical R-convolution kernels, the proposed QESK can discriminate the distinctions of isomorphic subtrees in terms of the global graph structures, theoretically explaining the effectiveness. Experiments indicate that the proposed QESK kernel can significantly outperform state-of-the-art graph kernels and graph deep learning methods for graph classification problems.
In this work, we propose a family of novel quantum kernels, namely the Hierarchical Aligned Quantum Jensen-Shannon Kernels (HAQJSK), for un-attributed graphs. Different from most existing classical graph kernels, the proposed HAQJSK kernels can incorporate hierarchical aligned structure information between graphs and transform graphs of random sizes into fixed-sized aligned graph structures, i.e., the Hierarchical Transitive Aligned Adjacency Matrix of vertices and the Hierarchical Transitive Aligned Density Matrix of the Continuous-Time Quantum Walk (CTQW). For a pair of graphs to hand, the resulting HAQJSK kernels are defined by measuring the Quantum Jensen-Shannon Divergence (QJSD) between their transitive aligned graph structures. We show that the proposed HAQJSK kernels not only reflect richer intrinsic global graph characteristics in terms of the CTQW, but also address the drawback of neglecting structural correspondence information arising in most existing R-convolution kernels. Furthermore, unlike the previous Quantum Jensen-Shannon Kernels associated with the QJSD and the CTQW, the proposed HAQJSK kernels can simultaneously guarantee the properties of permutation invariant and positive definiteness, explaining the theoretical advantages of the HAQJSK kernels. Experiments indicate the effectiveness of the proposed kernels.
To alleviate the challenges of building Knowledge Graphs (KG) from scratch, a more general task is to enrich a KG using triples from an open corpus, where the obtained triples contain noisy entities and relations. It is challenging to enrich a KG with newly harvested triples while maintaining the quality of the knowledge representation. This paper proposes a system to refine a KG using information harvested from an additional corpus. To this end, we formulate our task as two coupled sub-tasks, namely join event extraction (JEE) and knowledge graph fusion (KGF). We then propose a Collaborative Knowledge Graph Fusion Framework to allow our sub-tasks to mutually assist one another in an alternating manner. More concretely, the explorer carries out the JEE supervised by both the ground-truth annotation and an existing KG provided by the supervisor. The supervisor then evaluates the triples extracted by the explorer and enriches the KG with those that are highly ranked. To implement this evaluation, we further propose a Translated Relation Alignment Scoring Mechanism to align and translate the extracted triples to the prior KG. Experiments verify that this collaboration can both improve the performance of the JEE and the KGF.
* Under review by IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Event extraction, the technology that aims to automatically get the structural information from documents, has attracted more and more attention in many fields. Most existing works discuss this issue with the token-level multi-label classification framework by distinguishing the tokens as different roles while ignoring the writing styles of documents. The writing style is a special way of content organizing for documents and it is relative fixed in documents with a special field (e.g. financial, medical documents, etc.). We argue that the writing style contains important clues for judging the roles for tokens and the ignorance of such patterns might lead to the performance degradation for the existing works. To this end, we model the writing style in documents as a distribution of argument roles, i.e., Role-Rank Distribution, and propose an event extraction model with the Role-Rank Distribution based Supervision Mechanism to capture this pattern through the supervised training process of an event extraction task. We compare our model with state-of-the-art methods on several real-world datasets. The empirical results show that our approach outperforms other alternatives with the captured patterns. This verifies the writing style contains valuable information that could improve the performance of the event extraction task.
* This paper has been submitted to Pattern Recognition Letters
Joint-event-extraction, which extracts structural information (i.e., entities or triggers of events) from unstructured real-world corpora, has attracted more and more research attention in natural language processing. Most existing works do not fully address the sparse co-occurrence relationships between entities and triggers, which loses this important information and thus deteriorates the extraction performance. To mitigate this issue, we first define the joint-event-extraction as a sequence-to-sequence labeling task with a tag set composed of tags of triggers and entities. Then, to incorporate the missing information in the aforementioned co-occurrence relationships, we propose a Cross-Supervised Mechanism (CSM) to alternately supervise the extraction of either triggers or entities based on the type distribution of each other. Moreover, since the connected entities and triggers naturally form a heterogeneous information network (HIN), we leverage the latent pattern along meta-paths for a given corpus to further improve the performance of our proposed method. To verify the effectiveness of our proposed method, we conduct extensive experiments on four real-world datasets as well as compare our method with state-of-the-art methods. Empirical results and analysis show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in both entity and trigger extraction.
In this paper, we develop a new graph kernel, namely the Hierarchical Transitive-Aligned kernel, by transitively aligning the vertices between graphs through a family of hierarchical prototype graphs. Comparing to most existing state-of-the-art graph kernels, the proposed kernel has three theoretical advantages. First, it incorporates the locational correspondence information between graphs into the kernel computation, and thus overcomes the shortcoming of ignoring structural correspondences arising in most R-convolution kernels. Second, it guarantees the transitivity between the correspondence information that is not available for most existing matching kernels. Third, it incorporates the information of all graphs under comparisons into the kernel computation process, and thus encapsulates richer characteristics. By transductively training the C-SVM classifier, experimental evaluations demonstrate the effectiveness of the new transitive-aligned kernel. The proposed kernel can outperform state-of-the-art graph kernels on standard graph-based datasets in terms of the classification accuracy.
We formalize networks with evolving structures as temporal networks and propose a generative link prediction model, Generative Link Sequence Modeling (GLSM), to predict future links for temporal networks. GLSM captures the temporal link formation patterns from the observed links with a sequence modeling framework and has the ability to generate the emerging links by inferring from the probability distribution on the potential future links. To avoid overfitting caused by treating each link as a unique token, we propose a self-tokenization mechanism to transform each raw link in the network to an abstract aggregation token automatically. The self-tokenization is seamlessly integrated into the sequence modeling framework, which allows the proposed GLSM model to have the generalization capability to discover link formation patterns beyond raw link sequences. We compare GLSM with the existing state-of-art methods on five real-world datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that GLSM obtains future positive links effectively in a generative fashion while achieving the best performance (2-10\% improvements on AUC) among other alternatives.