Ultrasound examination is widely used in the clinical diagnosis of thyroid nodules (benign/malignant). However, the accuracy relies heavily on radiologist experience. Although deep learning techniques have been investigated for thyroid nodules recognition. Current solutions are mainly based on static ultrasound images, with limited temporal information used and inconsistent with clinical diagnosis. This paper proposes a novel method for the automated recognition of thyroid nodules through an exhaustive exploration of ultrasound videos and key-frames. We first propose a detection-localization framework to automatically identify the clinical key-frame with a typical nodule in each ultrasound video. Based on the localized key-frame, we develop a key-frame guided video classification model for thyroid nodule recognition. Besides, we introduce a motion attention module to help the network focus on significant frames in an ultrasound video, which is consistent with clinical diagnosis. The proposed thyroid nodule recognition framework is validated on clinically collected ultrasound videos, demonstrating superior performance compared with other state-of-the-art methods.
E-commerce has evolved with the digital technology revolution over the years. Last-mile logistics service contributes a significant part of the e-commerce experience. In contrast to the traditional last-mile logistics services, smart logistics service with autonomous driving technologies provides a promising solution to reduce the delivery cost and to improve efficiency. However, the traffic conditions in complex traffic environments, such as those in China, are more challenging compared to those in well-developed countries. Many types of moving objects (such as pedestrians, bicycles, electric bicycles, and motorcycles, etc.) share the road with autonomous vehicles, and their behaviors are not easy to track and predict. This paper introduces a technical solution from JD.com, a leading E-commerce company in China, to the autonomous last-mile delivery in complex traffic environments. Concretely, the methodologies in each module of our autonomous vehicles are presented, together with safety guarantee strategies. Up to this point, JD.com has deployed more than 300 self-driving vehicles for trial operations in tens of provinces of China, with an accumulated 715,819 miles and up to millions of on-road testing hours.
In this manuscript, we introduce a real-time motion planning system based on the Baidu Apollo (open source) autonomous driving platform. The developed system aims to address the industrial level-4 motion planning problem while considering safety, comfort and scalability. The system covers multilane and single-lane autonomous driving in a hierarchical manner: (1) The top layer of the system is a multilane strategy that handles lane-change scenarios by comparing lane-level trajectories computed in parallel. (2) Inside the lane-level trajectory generator, it iteratively solves path and speed optimization based on a Frenet frame. (3) For path and speed optimization, a combination of dynamic programming and spline-based quadratic programming is proposed to construct a scalable and easy-to-tune framework to handle traffic rules, obstacle decisions and smoothness simultaneously. The planner is scalable to both highway and lower-speed city driving scenarios. We also demonstrate the algorithm through scenario illustrations and on-road test results. The system described in this manuscript has been deployed to dozens of Baidu Apollo autonomous driving vehicles since Apollo v1.5 was announced in September 2017. As of May 16th, 2018, the system has been tested under 3,380 hours and approximately 68,000 kilometers (42,253 miles) of closed-loop autonomous driving under various urban scenarios. The algorithm described in this manuscript is available at https://github.com/ApolloAuto/apollo/tree/master/modules/planning.