The mainstream of the existing approaches for video prediction builds up their models based on a Single-In-Single-Out (SISO) architecture, which takes the current frame as input to predict the next frame in a recursive manner. This way often leads to severe performance degradation when they try to extrapolate a longer period of future, thus limiting the practical use of the prediction model. Alternatively, a Multi-In-Multi-Out (MIMO) architecture that outputs all the future frames at one shot naturally breaks the recursive manner and therefore prevents error accumulation. However, only a few MIMO models for video prediction are proposed and they only achieve inferior performance due to the date. The real strength of the MIMO model in this area is not well noticed and is largely under-explored. Motivated by that, we conduct a comprehensive investigation in this paper to thoroughly exploit how far a simple MIMO architecture can go. Surprisingly, our empirical studies reveal that a simple MIMO model can outperform the state-of-the-art work with a large margin much more than expected, especially in dealing with longterm error accumulation. After exploring a number of ways and designs, we propose a new MIMO architecture based on extending the pure Transformer with local spatio-temporal blocks and a new multi-output decoder, namely MIMO-VP, to establish a new standard in video prediction. We evaluate our model in four highly competitive benchmarks (Moving MNIST, Human3.6M, Weather, KITTI). Extensive experiments show that our model wins 1st place on all the benchmarks with remarkable performance gains and surpasses the best SISO model in all aspects including efficiency, quantity, and quality. We believe our model can serve as a new baseline to facilitate the future research of video prediction tasks. The code will be released.
Despite video forecasting has been a widely explored topic in recent years, the mainstream of the existing work still limits their models with a single prediction space but completely neglects the way to leverage their model with multi-prediction spaces. This work fills this gap. For the first time, we deeply study numerous strategies to perform video forecasting in multi-prediction spaces and fuse their results together to boost performance. The prediction in the pixel space usually lacks the ability to preserve the semantic and structure content of the video however the prediction in the high-level feature space is prone to generate errors in the reduction and recovering process. Therefore, we build a recurrent connection between different feature spaces and incorporate their generations in the upsampling process. Rather surprisingly, this simple idea yields a much more significant performance boost than PhyDNet (performance improved by 32.1% MAE on MNIST-2 dataset, and 21.4% MAE on KTH dataset). Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations on four datasets demonstrate the generalization ability and effectiveness of our approach. We show that our model significantly reduces the troublesome distortions and blurry artifacts and brings remarkable improvements to the accuracy in long term video prediction. The code will be released soon.