The motivations of users to make interactions can be divided into static preference and dynamic interest. To accurately model user representations over time, recent studies in sequential recommendation utilize information propagation and evolution to mine from batches of arriving interactions. However, they ignore the fact that people are easily influenced by the recent actions of other users in the contextual scenario, and applying evolution across all historical interactions dilutes the importance of recent ones, thus failing to model the evolution of dynamic interest accurately. To address this issue, we propose a Context-Aware Pseudo-Multi-Task Recommender System (CPMR) to model the evolution in both historical and contextual scenarios by creating three representations for each user and item under different dynamics: static embedding, historical temporal states, and contextual temporal states. To dually improve the performance of temporal states evolution and incremental recommendation, we design a Pseudo-Multi-Task Learning (PMTL) paradigm by stacking the incremental single-target recommendations into one multi-target task for joint optimization. Within the PMTL paradigm, CPMR employs a shared-bottom network to conduct the evolution of temporal states across historical and contextual scenarios, as well as the fusion of them at the user-item level. In addition, CPMR incorporates one real tower for incremental predictions, and two pseudo towers dedicated to updating the respective temporal states based on new batches of interactions. Experimental results on four benchmark recommendation datasets show that CPMR consistently outperforms state-of-the-art baselines and achieves significant gains on three of them. The code is available at: https://github.com/DiMarzioBian/CPMR.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a commonly used technique to measure neural activation. Its application has been particularly important in identifying underlying neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Autism. Recent analysis of fMRI data models the brain as a graph and extracts features by graph neural networks (GNNs). However, the unique characteristics of fMRI data require a special design of GNN. Tailoring GNN to generate effective and domain-explainable features remains challenging. In this paper, we propose a contrastive dual-attention block and a differentiable graph pooling method called ContrastPool to better utilize GNN for brain networks, meeting fMRI-specific requirements. We apply our method to 5 resting-state fMRI brain network datasets of 3 diseases and demonstrate its superiority over state-of-the-art baselines. Our case study confirms that the patterns extracted by our method match the domain knowledge in neuroscience literature, and disclose direct and interesting insights. Our contributions underscore the potential of ContrastPool for advancing the understanding of brain networks and neurodegenerative conditions.
Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are widely used for graph representation learning in many application domains. The expressiveness of vanilla GNNs is upper-bounded by 1-dimensional Weisfeiler-Leman (1-WL) test as they operate on rooted subtrees through iterative message passing. In this paper, we empower GNNs by injecting neighbor-connectivity information extracted from a new type of substructure. We first investigate different kinds of connectivities existing in a local neighborhood and identify a substructure called union subgraph, which is able to capture the complete picture of the 1-hop neighborhood of an edge. We then design a shortest-path-based substructure descriptor that possesses three nice properties and can effectively encode the high-order connectivities in union subgraphs. By infusing the encoded neighbor connectivities, we propose a novel model, namely Union Subgraph Neural Network (UnionSNN), which is proven to be strictly more powerful than 1-WL in distinguishing non-isomorphic graphs. Additionally, the local encoding from union subgraphs can also be injected into arbitrary message-passing neural networks (MPNNs) and Transformer-based models as a plugin. Extensive experiments on 17 benchmarks of both graph-level and node-level tasks demonstrate that UnionSNN outperforms state-of-the-art baseline models, with competitive computational efficiency. The injection of our local encoding to existing models is able to boost the performance by up to 11.09%.