Lithography is fundamental to integrated circuit fabrication, necessitating large computation overhead. The advancement of machine learning (ML)-based lithography models alleviates the trade-offs between manufacturing process expense and capability. However, all previous methods regard the lithography system as an image-to-image black box mapping, utilizing network parameters to learn by rote mappings from massive mask-to-aerial or mask-to-resist image pairs, resulting in poor generalization capability. In this paper, we propose a new ML-based paradigm disassembling the rigorous lithographic model into non-parametric mask operations and learned optical kernels containing determinant source, pupil, and lithography information. By optimizing complex-valued neural fields to perform optical kernel regression from coordinates, our method can accurately restore lithography system using a small-scale training dataset with fewer parameters, demonstrating superior generalization capability as well. Experiments show that our framework can use 31% of parameters while achieving 69$\times$ smaller mean squared error with 1.3$\times$ higher throughput than the state-of-the-art.
Multiple patterning lithography (MPL) is regarded as one of the most promising ways of overcoming the resolution limitations of conventional optical lithography due to the delay of next-generation lithography technology. As the feature size continues to decrease, layout decomposition for multiple patterning lithography (MPLD) technology is becoming increasingly crucial for improving the manufacturability in advanced nodes. The decomposition process refers to assigning the layout features to different mask layers according to the design rules and density requirements. When the number of masks $k \geq 3$, the MPLD problems are NP-hard and thus may suffer from runtime overhead for practical designs. However, the number of layout patterns is increasing exponentially in industrial layouts, which hinders the runtime performance of MPLD models. In this research, we substitute the CPU's dance link data structure with parallel GPU matrix operations to accelerate the solution for exact cover-based MPLD algorithms. Experimental results demonstrate that our system is capable of full-scale, lightning-fast layout decomposition, which can achieve more than 10$\times$ speed-up without quality degradation compared to state-of-the-art layout decomposition methods.
Personalized prediction of responses for individual entities caused by external drivers is vital across many disciplines. Recent machine learning (ML) advances have led to new state-of-the-art response prediction models. Models built at a population level often lead to sub-optimal performance in many personalized prediction settings due to heterogeneity in data across entities (tasks). In personalized prediction, the goal is to incorporate inherent characteristics of different entities to improve prediction performance. In this survey, we focus on the recent developments in the ML community for such entity-aware modeling approaches. ML algorithms often modulate the network using these entity characteristics when they are readily available. However, these entity characteristics are not readily available in many real-world scenarios, and different ML methods have been proposed to infer these characteristics from the data. In this survey, we have organized the current literature on entity-aware modeling based on the availability of these characteristics as well as the amount of training data. We highlight how recent innovations in other disciplines, such as uncertainty quantification, fairness, and knowledge-guided machine learning, can improve entity-aware modeling.
Process design is a creative task that is currently performed manually by engineers. Artificial intelligence provides new potential to facilitate process design. Specifically, reinforcement learning (RL) has shown some success in automating process design by integrating data-driven models that learn to build process flowsheets with process simulation in an iterative design process. However, one major challenge in the learning process is that the RL agent demands numerous process simulations in rigorous process simulators, thereby requiring long simulation times and expensive computational power. Therefore, typically short-cut simulation methods are employed to accelerate the learning process. Short-cut methods can, however, lead to inaccurate results. We thus propose to utilize transfer learning for process design with RL in combination with rigorous simulation methods. Transfer learning is an established approach from machine learning that stores knowledge gained while solving one problem and reuses this information on a different target domain. We integrate transfer learning in our RL framework for process design and apply it to an illustrative case study comprising equilibrium reactions, azeotropic separation, and recycles, our method can design economically feasible flowsheets with stable interaction with DWSIM. Our results show that transfer learning enables RL to economically design feasible flowsheets with DWSIM, resulting in a flowsheet with an 8% higher revenue. And the learning time can be reduced by a factor of 2.
Lithography modeling is a crucial problem in chip design to ensure a chip design mask is manufacturable. It requires rigorous simulations of optical and chemical models that are computationally expensive. Recent developments in machine learning have provided alternative solutions in replacing the time-consuming lithography simulations with deep neural networks. However, the considerable accuracy drop still impedes its industrial adoption. Most importantly, the quality and quantity of the training dataset directly affect the model performance. To tackle this problem, we propose a litho-aware data augmentation (LADA) framework to resolve the dilemma of limited data and improve the machine learning model performance. First, we pretrain the neural networks for lithography modeling and a gradient-friendly StyleGAN2 generator. We then perform adversarial active sampling to generate informative and synthetic in-distribution mask designs. These synthetic mask images will augment the original limited training dataset used to finetune the lithography model for improved performance. Experimental results demonstrate that LADA can successfully exploits the neural network capacity by narrowing down the performance gap between the training and testing data instances.
Machine learning techniques have been extensively studied for mask optimization problems, aiming at better mask printability, shorter turnaround time, better mask manufacturability, and so on. However, most of these researches are focusing on the initial solution generation of small design regions. To further realize the potential of machine learning techniques on mask optimization tasks, we present a Convolutional Fourier Neural Operator (CFNO) that can efficiently learn layout tile dependencies and hence promise stitch-less large-scale mask optimization with the limited intervention of legacy tools. We discover the possibility of litho-guided self-training (LGST) through a trained machine learning model when solving non-convex optimization problems, which allows iterative model and dataset update and brings significant model performance improvement. Experimental results show that, for the first time, our machine learning-based framework outperforms state-of-the-art academic numerical mask optimizers with an order of magnitude speedup.
Lithography simulation is a critical step in VLSI design and optimization for manufacturability. Existing solutions for highly accurate lithography simulation with rigorous models are computationally expensive and slow, even when equipped with various approximation techniques. Recently, machine learning has provided alternative solutions for lithography simulation tasks such as coarse-grained edge placement error regression and complete contour prediction. However, the impact of these learning-based methods has been limited due to restrictive usage scenarios or low simulation accuracy. To tackle these concerns, we introduce an dual-band optics-inspired neural network design that considers the optical physics underlying lithography. To the best of our knowledge, our approach yields the first published via/metal layer contour simulation at 1nm^2/pixel resolution with any tile size. Compared to previous machine learning based solutions, we demonstrate that our framework can be trained much faster and offers a significant improvement on efficiency and image quality with 20X smaller model size. We also achieve 85X simulation speedup over traditional lithography simulator with 1% accuracy loss.
This paper proposes a new data-driven method for predicting water temperature in stream networks with reservoirs. The water flows released from reservoirs greatly affect the water temperature of downstream river segments. However, the information of released water flow is often not available for many reservoirs, which makes it difficult for data-driven models to capture the impact to downstream river segments. In this paper, we first build a state-aware graph model to represent the interactions amongst streams and reservoirs, and then propose a parallel learning structure to extract the reservoir release information and use it to improve the prediction. In particular, for reservoirs with no available release information, we mimic the water managers' release decision process through a pseudo-prospective learning method, which infers the release information from anticipated water temperature dynamics. For reservoirs with the release information, we leverage a physics-based model to simulate the water release temperature and transfer such information to guide the learning process for other reservoirs. The evaluation for the Delaware River Basin shows that the proposed method brings over 10\% accuracy improvement over existing data-driven models for stream temperature prediction when the release data is not available for any reservoirs. The performance is further improved after we incorporate the release data and physical simulations for a subset of reservoirs.