Grounded Multimodal Named Entity Recognition (GMNER) is a nascent multimodal task that aims to identify named entities, entity types and their corresponding visual regions. GMNER task exhibits two challenging properties: 1) The weak correlation between image-text pairs in social media results in a significant portion of named entities being ungroundable. 2) There exists a distinction between coarse-grained referring expressions commonly used in similar tasks (e.g., phrase localization, referring expression comprehension) and fine-grained named entities. In this paper, we propose RiVEG, a unified framework that reformulates GMNER into a joint MNER-VE-VG task by leveraging large language models (LLMs) as a connecting bridge. This reformulation brings two benefits: 1) It maintains the optimal MNER performance and eliminates the need for employing object detection methods to pre-extract regional features, thereby naturally addressing two major limitations of existing GMNER methods. 2) The introduction of entity expansion expression and Visual Entailment (VE) Module unifies Visual Grounding (VG) and Entity Grounding (EG). It enables RiVEG to effortlessly inherit the Visual Entailment and Visual Grounding capabilities of any current or prospective multimodal pretraining models. Extensive experiments demonstrate that RiVEG outperforms state-of-the-art methods on the existing GMNER dataset and achieves absolute leads of 10.65%, 6.21%, and 8.83% in all three subtasks.
Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) mimic the information-processing mechanisms of the human brain and are highly energy-efficient, making them well-suited for low-power edge devices. However, the pursuit of accuracy in current studies leads to large, long-timestep SNNs, conflicting with the resource constraints of these devices. In order to design lightweight and efficient SNNs, we propose a new approach named LitESNN that incorporates both spatial and temporal compression into the automated network design process. Spatially, we present a novel Compressive Convolution block (CompConv) to expand the search space to support pruning and mixed-precision quantization while utilizing the shared weights and pruning mask to reduce the computation. Temporally, we are the first to propose a compressive timestep search to identify the optimal number of timesteps under specific computation cost constraints. Finally, we formulate a joint optimization to simultaneously learn the architecture parameters and spatial-temporal compression strategies to achieve high performance while minimizing memory and computation costs. Experimental results on CIFAR10, CIFAR100, and Google Speech Command datasets demonstrate our proposed LitESNNs can achieve competitive or even higher accuracy with remarkably smaller model sizes and fewer computation costs. Furthermore, we validate the effectiveness of our LitESNN on the trade-off between accuracy and resource cost and show the superiority of our joint optimization. Additionally, we conduct energy analysis to further confirm the energy efficiency of LitESNN
Spiking neural networks (SNNs) serve as one type of efficient model to process spatio-temporal patterns in time series, such as the Address-Event Representation data collected from Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS). Although convolutional SNNs have achieved remarkable performance on these AER datasets, benefiting from the predominant spatial feature extraction ability of convolutional structure, they ignore temporal features related to sequential time points. In this paper, we develop a recurrent spiking neural network (RSNN) model embedded with an advanced spiking convolutional block attention module (SCBAM) component to combine both spatial and temporal features of spatio-temporal patterns. It invokes the history information in spatial and temporal channels adaptively through SCBAM, which brings the advantages of efficient memory calling and history redundancy elimination. The performance of our model was evaluated in DVS128-Gesture dataset and other time-series datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed SRNN-SCBAM model makes better use of the history information in spatial and temporal dimensions with less memory space, and achieves higher accuracy compared to other models.
Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) are gaining increasing attention for their biological plausibility and potential for improved computational efficiency. To match the high spatial-temporal dynamics in SNNs, neuromorphic chips are highly desired to execute SNNs in hardware-based neuron and synapse circuits directly. This paper presents a large-scale neuromorphic chip named Darwin3 with a novel instruction set architecture(ISA), which comprises 10 primary instructions and a few extended instructions. It supports flexible neuron model programming and local learning rule designs. The Darwin3 chip architecture is designed in a mesh of computing nodes with an innovative routing algorithm. We used a compression mechanism to represent synaptic connections, significantly reducing memory usage. The Darwin3 chip supports up to 2.35 million neurons, making it the largest of its kind in neuron scale. The experimental results showed that code density was improved up to 28.3x in Darwin3, and neuron core fan-in and fan-out were improved up to 4096x and 3072x by connection compression compared to the physical memory depth. Our Darwin3 chip also provided memory saving between 6.8X and 200.8X when mapping convolutional spiking neural networks (CSNN) onto the chip, demonstrating state-of-the-art performance in accuracy and latency compared to other neuromorphic chips.
A crucial reason for the success of existing NeRF-based methods is to build a neural density field for the geometry representation via multiple perceptron layers (MLPs). MLPs are continuous functions, however, real geometry or density field is frequently discontinuous at the interface between the air and the surface. Such a contrary brings the problem of unfaithful geometry representation. To this end, this paper proposes spiking NeRF, which leverages spiking neuron and a hybrid Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-Spiking Neural Network (SNN) framework to build a discontinuous density field for faithful geometry representation. Specifically, we first demonstrate the reason why continuous density fields will bring inaccuracy. Then, we propose to use the spiking neurons to build a discontinuous density field. We conduct comprehensive analysis for the problem of existing spiking neuron models and then provide the numerical relationship between the parameter of spiking neuron and the theoretical accuracy of geometry, Based on this, we propose a bounded spiking neuron to build the discontinuous density field. Our results achieve SOTA performance. Our code and data will be released to the public.
Existing multi-agent PPO algorithms lack compatibility with different types of parameter sharing when extending the theoretical guarantee of PPO to cooperative multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL). In this paper, we propose a novel and versatile multi-agent PPO algorithm for cooperative MARL to overcome this limitation. Our approach is achieved upon the proposed full-pipeline paradigm, which establishes multiple parallel optimization pipelines by employing various equivalent decompositions of the advantage function. This procedure successfully formulates the interconnections among agents in a more general manner, i.e., the interconnections among pipelines, making it compatible with diverse types of parameter sharing. We provide a solid theoretical foundation for policy improvement and subsequently develop a practical algorithm called Full-Pipeline PPO (FP3O) by several approximations. Empirical evaluations on Multi-Agent MuJoCo and StarCraftII tasks demonstrate that FP3O outperforms other strong baselines and exhibits remarkable versatility across various parameter-sharing configurations.
Significant progress has been made in the field of super-resolution (SR), yet many convolutional neural networks (CNNs) based SR models primarily focus on restoring high-frequency details, often overlooking crucial low-frequency contour information. Transformer-based SR methods, while incorporating global structural details, frequently come with an abundance of parameters, leading to high computational overhead. In this paper, we address these challenges by introducing a Multi-Depth Branches Network (MDBN). This framework extends the ResNet architecture by integrating an additional branch that captures vital structural characteristics of images. Our proposed multi-depth branches module (MDBM) involves the stacking of convolutional kernels of identical size at varying depths within distinct branches. By conducting a comprehensive analysis of the feature maps, we observe that branches with differing depths can extract contour and detail information respectively. By integrating these branches, the overall architecture can preserve essential low-frequency semantic structural information during the restoration of high-frequency visual elements, which is more closely with human visual cognition. Compared to GoogLeNet-like models, our basic multi-depth branches structure has fewer parameters, higher computational efficiency, and improved performance. Our model outperforms state-of-the-art (SOTA) lightweight SR methods with less inference time. Our code is available at https://github.com/thy960112/MDBN
Decoding of seen visual contents with non-invasive brain recordings has important scientific and practical values. Efforts have been made to recover the seen images from brain signals. However, most existing approaches cannot faithfully reflect the visual contents due to insufficient image quality or semantic mismatches. Compared with reconstructing pixel-level visual images, speaking is a more efficient and effective way to explain visual information. Here we introduce a non-invasive neural decoder, termed as MindGPT, which interprets perceived visual stimuli into natural languages from fMRI signals. Specifically, our model builds upon a visually guided neural encoder with a cross-attention mechanism, which permits us to guide latent neural representations towards a desired language semantic direction in an end-to-end manner by the collaborative use of the large language model GPT. By doing so, we found that the neural representations of the MindGPT are explainable, which can be used to evaluate the contributions of visual properties to language semantics. Our experiments show that the generated word sequences truthfully represented the visual information (with essential details) conveyed in the seen stimuli. The results also suggested that with respect to language decoding tasks, the higher visual cortex (HVC) is more semantically informative than the lower visual cortex (LVC), and using only the HVC can recover most of the semantic information. The code of the MindGPT model will be publicly available at https://github.com/JxuanC/MindGPT.
* 13 pages, 6 figures, submitted to anonymous conference
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide a direct pathway from the brain to external devices and have demonstrated great potential for assistive and rehabilitation technologies. Endogenous BCIs based on electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, such as motor imagery (MI) BCIs, can provide some level of control. However, mastering spontaneous BCI control requires the users to generate discriminative and stable brain signal patterns by imagery, which is challenging and is usually achieved over a very long training time (weeks/months). Here, we propose a human-machine joint learning framework to boost the learning process in endogenous BCIs, by guiding the user to generate brain signals towards an optimal distribution estimated by the decoder, given the historical brain signals of the user. To this end, we firstly model the human-machine joint learning process in a uniform formulation. Then a human-machine joint learning framework is proposed: 1) for the human side, we model the learning process in a sequential trial-and-error scenario and propose a novel ``copy/new'' feedback paradigm to help shape the signal generation of the subject toward the optimal distribution; 2) for the machine side, we propose a novel adaptive learning algorithm to learn an optimal signal distribution along with the subject's learning process. Specifically, the decoder reweighs the brain signals generated by the subject to focus more on ``good'' samples to cope with the learning process of the subject. Online and psuedo-online BCI experiments with 18 healthy subjects demonstrated the advantages of the proposed joint learning process over co-adaptive approaches in both learning efficiency and effectiveness.
Our comprehension of biological neuronal networks has profoundly influenced the evolution of artificial neural networks (ANNs). However, the neurons employed in ANNs exhibit remarkable deviations from their biological analogs, mainly due to the absence of complex dendritic trees encompassing local nonlinearity. Despite such disparities, previous investigations have demonstrated that point neurons can functionally substitute dendritic neurons in executing computational tasks. In this study, we scrutinized the importance of nonlinear dendrites within neural networks. By employing machine-learning methodologies, we assessed the impact of dendritic structure nonlinearity on neural network performance. Our findings reveal that integrating dendritic structures can substantially enhance model capacity and performance while keeping signal communication costs effectively restrained. This investigation offers pivotal insights that hold considerable implications for the development of future neural network accelerators.