This paper presents a new way to identify additional positive pairs for BYOL, a state-of-the-art (SOTA) self-supervised learning framework, to improve its representation learning ability. Unlike conventional BYOL which relies on only one positive pair generated by two augmented views of the same image, we argue that information from different images with the same label can bring more diversity and variations to the target features, thus benefiting representation learning. To identify such pairs without any label, we investigate TracIn, an instance-based and computationally efficient influence function, for BYOL training. Specifically, TracIn is a gradient-based method that reveals the impact of a training sample on a test sample in supervised learning. We extend it to the self-supervised learning setting and propose an efficient batch-wise per-sample gradient computation method to estimate the pairwise TracIn to represent the similarity of samples in the mini-batch during training. For each image, we select the most similar sample from other images as the additional positive and pull their features together with BYOL loss. Experimental results on two public medical datasets (i.e., ISIC 2019 and ChestX-ray) demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the classification performance compared to other competitive baselines in both semi-supervised and transfer learning settings.
The number of international benchmarking competitions is steadily increasing in various fields of machine learning (ML) research and practice. So far, however, little is known about the common practice as well as bottlenecks faced by the community in tackling the research questions posed. To shed light on the status quo of algorithm development in the specific field of biomedical imaging analysis, we designed an international survey that was issued to all participants of challenges conducted in conjunction with the IEEE ISBI 2021 and MICCAI 2021 conferences (80 competitions in total). The survey covered participants' expertise and working environments, their chosen strategies, as well as algorithm characteristics. A median of 72% challenge participants took part in the survey. According to our results, knowledge exchange was the primary incentive (70%) for participation, while the reception of prize money played only a minor role (16%). While a median of 80 working hours was spent on method development, a large portion of participants stated that they did not have enough time for method development (32%). 25% perceived the infrastructure to be a bottleneck. Overall, 94% of all solutions were deep learning-based. Of these, 84% were based on standard architectures. 43% of the respondents reported that the data samples (e.g., images) were too large to be processed at once. This was most commonly addressed by patch-based training (69%), downsampling (37%), and solving 3D analysis tasks as a series of 2D tasks. K-fold cross-validation on the training set was performed by only 37% of the participants and only 50% of the participants performed ensembling based on multiple identical models (61%) or heterogeneous models (39%). 48% of the respondents applied postprocessing steps.
The ubiquity of edge devices has led to a growing amount of unlabeled data produced at the edge. Deep learning models deployed on edge devices are required to learn from these unlabeled data to continuously improve accuracy. Self-supervised representation learning has achieved promising performances using centralized unlabeled data. However, the increasing awareness of privacy protection limits centralizing the distributed unlabeled image data on edge devices. While federated learning has been widely adopted to enable distributed machine learning with privacy preservation, without a data selection method to efficiently select streaming data, the traditional federated learning framework fails to handle these huge amounts of decentralized unlabeled data with limited storage resources on edge. To address these challenges, we propose a Federated on-device Contrastive learning framework with Coreset selection, which we call FedCoCo, to automatically select a coreset that consists of the most representative samples into the replay buffer on each device. It preserves data privacy as each client does not share raw data while learning good visual representations. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and significance of the proposed method in visual representation learning.
In dermatological disease diagnosis, the private data collected by mobile dermatology assistants exist on distributed mobile devices of patients. Federated learning (FL) can use decentralized data to train models while keeping data local. Existing FL methods assume all the data have labels. However, medical data often comes without full labels due to high labeling costs. Self-supervised learning (SSL) methods, contrastive learning (CL) and masked autoencoders (MAE), can leverage the unlabeled data to pre-train models, followed by fine-tuning with limited labels. However, combining SSL and FL has unique challenges. For example, CL requires diverse data but each device only has limited data. For MAE, while Vision Transformer (ViT) based MAE has higher accuracy over CNNs in centralized learning, MAE's performance in FL with unlabeled data has not been investigated. Besides, the ViT synchronization between the server and clients is different from traditional CNNs. Therefore, special synchronization methods need to be designed. In this work, we propose two federated self-supervised learning frameworks for dermatological disease diagnosis with limited labels. The first one features lower computation costs, suitable for mobile devices. The second one features high accuracy and fits high-performance servers. Based on CL, we proposed federated contrastive learning with feature sharing (FedCLF). Features are shared for diverse contrastive information without sharing raw data for privacy. Based on MAE, we proposed FedMAE. Knowledge split separates the global and local knowledge learned from each client. Only global knowledge is aggregated for higher generalization performance. Experiments on dermatological disease datasets show superior accuracy of the proposed frameworks over state-of-the-arts.
Supervised deep learning needs a large amount of labeled data to achieve high performance. However, in medical imaging analysis, each site may only have a limited amount of data and labels, which makes learning ineffective. Federated learning (FL) can learn a shared model from decentralized data. But traditional FL requires fully-labeled data for training, which is very expensive to obtain. Self-supervised contrastive learning (CL) can learn from unlabeled data for pre-training, followed by fine-tuning with limited annotations. However, when adopting CL in FL, the limited data diversity on each site makes federated contrastive learning (FCL) ineffective. In this work, we propose two federated self-supervised learning frameworks for volumetric medical image segmentation with limited annotations. The first one features high accuracy and fits high-performance servers with high-speed connections. The second one features lower communication costs, suitable for mobile devices. In the first framework, features are exchanged during FCL to provide diverse contrastive data to each site for effective local CL while keeping raw data private. Global structural matching aligns local and remote features for a unified feature space among different sites. In the second framework, to reduce the communication cost for feature exchanging, we propose an optimized method FCLOpt that does not rely on negative samples. To reduce the communications of model download, we propose the predictive target network update (PTNU) that predicts the parameters of the target network. Based on PTNU, we propose the distance prediction (DP) to remove most of the uploads of the target network. Experiments on a cardiac MRI dataset show the proposed two frameworks substantially improve the segmentation and generalization performance compared with state-of-the-art techniques.
Supervised deep learning needs a large amount of labeled data to achieve high performance. However, in medical imaging analysis, each site may only have a limited amount of data and labels, which makes learning ineffective. Federated learning (FL) can help in this regard by learning a shared model while keeping training data local for privacy. Traditional FL requires fully-labeled data for training, which is inconvenient or sometimes infeasible to obtain due to high labeling cost and the requirement of expertise. Contrastive learning (CL), as a self-supervised learning approach, can effectively learn from unlabeled data to pre-train a neural network encoder, followed by fine-tuning for downstream tasks with limited annotations. However, when adopting CL in FL, the limited data diversity on each client makes federated contrastive learning (FCL) ineffective. In this work, we propose an FCL framework for volumetric medical image segmentation with limited annotations. More specifically, we exchange the features in the FCL pre-training process such that diverse contrastive data are provided to each site for effective local CL while keeping raw data private. Based on the exchanged features, global structural matching further leverages the structural similarity to align local features to the remote ones such that a unified feature space can be learned among different sites. Experiments on a cardiac MRI dataset show the proposed framework substantially improves the segmentation performance compared with state-of-the-art techniques.
Many works have shown that deep learning-based medical image classification models can exhibit bias toward certain demographic attributes like race, gender, and age. Existing bias mitigation methods primarily focus on learning debiased models, which may not necessarily guarantee all sensitive information can be removed and usually comes with considerable accuracy degradation on both privileged and unprivileged groups. To tackle this issue, we propose a method, FairPrune, that achieves fairness by pruning. Conventionally, pruning is used to reduce the model size for efficient inference. However, we show that pruning can also be a powerful tool to achieve fairness. Our observation is that during pruning, each parameter in the model has different importance for different groups' accuracy. By pruning the parameters based on this importance difference, we can reduce the accuracy difference between the privileged group and the unprivileged group to improve fairness without a large accuracy drop. To this end, we use the second derivative of the parameters of a pre-trained model to quantify the importance of each parameter with respect to the model accuracy for each group. Experiments on two skin lesion diagnosis datasets over multiple sensitive attributes demonstrate that our method can greatly improve fairness while keeping the average accuracy of both groups as high as possible.
Contrastive learning (CL), a self-supervised learning approach, can effectively learn visual representations from unlabeled data. However, CL requires learning on vast quantities of diverse data to achieve good performance, without which the performance of CL will greatly degrade. To tackle this problem, we propose a framework with two approaches to improve the data efficiency of CL training by generating beneficial samples and joint learning. The first approach generates hard samples for the main model. The generator is jointly learned with the main model to dynamically customize hard samples based on the training state of the main model. With the progressively growing knowledge of the main model, the generated samples also become harder to constantly encourage the main model to learn better representations. Besides, a pair of data generators are proposed to generate similar but distinct samples as positive pairs. In joint learning, the hardness of a positive pair is progressively increased by decreasing their similarity. In this way, the main model learns to cluster hard positives by pulling the representations of similar yet distinct samples together, by which the representations of similar samples are well-clustered and better representations can be learned. Comprehensive experiments show superior accuracy and data efficiency of the proposed methods over the state-of-the-art on multiple datasets. For example, about 5% accuracy improvement on ImageNet-100 and CIFAR-10, and more than 6% accuracy improvement on CIFAR-100 are achieved for linear classification. Besides, up to 2x data efficiency for linear classification and up to 5x data efficiency for transfer learning are achieved.
Deep learning models have been deployed in an increasing number of edge and mobile devices to provide healthcare. These models rely on training with a tremendous amount of labeled data to achieve high accuracy. However, for medical applications such as dermatological disease diagnosis, the private data collected by mobile dermatology assistants exist on distributed mobile devices of patients, and each device only has a limited amount of data. Directly learning from limited data greatly deteriorates the performance of learned models. Federated learning (FL) can train models by using data distributed on devices while keeping the data local for privacy. Existing works on FL assume all the data have ground-truth labels. However, medical data often comes without any accompanying labels since labeling requires expertise and results in prohibitively high labor costs. The recently developed self-supervised learning approach, contrastive learning (CL), can leverage the unlabeled data to pre-train a model, after which the model is fine-tuned on limited labeled data for dermatological disease diagnosis. However, simply combining CL with FL as federated contrastive learning (FCL) will result in ineffective learning since CL requires diverse data for learning but each device only has limited data. In this work, we propose an on-device FCL framework for dermatological disease diagnosis with limited labels. Features are shared in the FCL pre-training process to provide diverse and accurate contrastive information. After that, the pre-trained model is fine-tuned with local labeled data independently on each device or collaboratively with supervised federated learning on all devices. Experiments on dermatological disease datasets show that the proposed framework effectively improves the recall and precision of dermatological disease diagnosis compared with state-of-the-art methods.
Federated learning (FL) enables distributed clients to learn a shared model for prediction while keeping the training data local on each client. However, existing FL requires fully-labeled data for training, which is inconvenient or sometimes infeasible to obtain due to the high labeling cost and the requirement of expertise. The lack of labels makes FL impractical in many realistic settings. Self-supervised learning can address this challenge by learning from unlabeled data such that FL can be widely used. Contrastive learning (CL), a self-supervised learning approach, can effectively learn data representations from unlabeled data. However, the distributed data collected on clients are usually not independent and identically distributed (non-IID) among clients, and each client may only have few classes of data, which degrades the performance of CL and learned representations. To tackle this problem, we propose a federated contrastive learning framework consisting of two approaches: feature fusion and neighborhood matching, by which a unified feature space among clients is learned for better data representations. Feature fusion provides remote features as accurate contrastive information to each client for better local learning. Neighborhood matching further aligns each client's local features to the remote features such that well-clustered features among clients can be learned. Extensive experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed framework. It outperforms other methods by 11\% on IID data and matches the performance of centralized learning.