Image-Text pretraining on web-scale image caption dataset has become the default recipe for open vocabulary classification and retrieval models thanks to the success of CLIP and its variants. Several works have also used CLIP features for dense prediction tasks and have shown the emergence of open-set abilities. However, the contrastive objective only focuses on image-text alignment and does not incentivise image feature learning for dense prediction tasks. In this work, we propose the simple addition of local-to-global correspondence learning by self-distillation as an additional objective for contrastive pre-training to propose SILC. We show that distilling local image features from an exponential moving average (EMA) teacher model significantly improves model performance on several computer vision tasks including classification, retrieval, and especially segmentation. We further show that SILC scales better with the same training duration compared to the baselines. Our model SILC sets a new state of the art for zero-shot classification, few shot classification, image and text retrieval, zero-shot segmentation, and open vocabulary segmentation.
This paper presents PaLI-3, a smaller, faster, and stronger vision language model (VLM) that compares favorably to similar models that are 10x larger. As part of arriving at this strong performance, we compare Vision Transformer (ViT) models pretrained using classification objectives to contrastively (SigLIP) pretrained ones. We find that, while slightly underperforming on standard image classification benchmarks, SigLIP-based PaLI shows superior performance across various multimodal benchmarks, especially on localization and visually-situated text understanding. We scale the SigLIP image encoder up to 2 billion parameters, and achieves a new state-of-the-art on multilingual cross-modal retrieval. We hope that PaLI-3, at only 5B parameters, rekindles research on fundamental pieces of complex VLMs, and could fuel a new generation of scaled-up models.
Contrastive pretraining on image-text pairs from the web is one of the most popular large-scale pretraining strategies for vision backbones, especially in the context of large multimodal models. At the same time, image captioning on this type of data is commonly considered an inferior pretraining strategy. In this paper, we perform a fair comparison of these two pretraining strategies, carefully matching training data, compute, and model capacity. Using a standard encoder-decoder transformer, we find that captioning alone is surprisingly effective: on classification tasks, captioning produces vision encoders competitive with contrastively pretrained encoders, while surpassing them on vision & language tasks. We further analyze the effect of the model architecture and scale, as well as the pretraining data on the representation quality, and find that captioning exhibits the same or better scaling behavior along these axes. Overall our results show that plain image captioning is a more powerful pretraining strategy than was previously believed.
We present the training recipe and results of scaling up PaLI-X, a multilingual vision and language model, both in terms of size of the components and the breadth of its training task mixture. Our model achieves new levels of performance on a wide-range of varied and complex tasks, including multiple image-based captioning and question-answering tasks, image-based document understanding and few-shot (in-context) learning, as well as object detection, video question answering, and video captioning. PaLI-X advances the state-of-the-art on most vision-and-language benchmarks considered (25+ of them). Finally, we observe emerging capabilities, such as complex counting and multilingual object detection, tasks that are not explicitly in the training mix.
We introduce Three Towers (3T), a flexible method to improve the contrastive learning of vision-language models by incorporating pretrained image classifiers. While contrastive models are usually trained from scratch, LiT (Zhai et al., 2022) has recently shown performance gains from using pretrained classifier embeddings. However, LiT directly replaces the image tower with the frozen embeddings, excluding any potential benefits of contrastively training the image tower. With 3T, we propose a more flexible strategy that allows the image tower to benefit from both pretrained embeddings and contrastive training. To achieve this, we introduce a third tower that contains the frozen pretrained embeddings, and we encourage alignment between this third tower and the main image-text towers. Empirically, 3T consistently improves over LiT and the CLIP-style from-scratch baseline for retrieval tasks. For classification, 3T reliably improves over the from-scratch baseline, and while it underperforms relative to LiT for JFT-pretrained models, it outperforms LiT for ImageNet-21k and Places365 pretraining.
Scaling laws have been recently employed to derive compute-optimal model size (number of parameters) for a given compute duration. We advance and refine such methods to infer compute-optimal model shapes, such as width and depth, and successfully implement this in vision transformers. Our shape-optimized vision transformer, SoViT, achieves results competitive with models that exceed twice its size, despite being pre-trained with an equivalent amount of compute. For example, SoViT-400m/14 achieves 90.3% fine-tuning accuracy on ILSRCV2012, surpassing the much larger ViT-g/14 and approaching ViT-G/14 under identical settings, with also less than half the inference cost. We conduct a thorough evaluation across multiple tasks, such as image classification, captioning, VQA and zero-shot transfer, demonstrating the effectiveness of our model across a broad range of domains and identifying limitations. Overall, our findings challenge the prevailing approach of blindly scaling up vision models and pave a path for a more informed scaling.
We propose a simple pairwise sigmoid loss for image-text pre-training. Unlike standard contrastive learning with softmax normalization, the sigmoid loss operates solely on image-text pairs and does not require a global view of the pairwise similarities for normalization. The sigmoid loss simultaneously allows further scaling up the batch size, while also performing better at smaller batch sizes. With only four TPUv4 chips, we can train a Base CLIP model at 4k batch size and a Large LiT model at 20k batch size, the latter achieves 84.5% ImageNet zero-shot accuracy in two days. This disentanglement of the batch size from the loss further allows us to study the impact of examples vs pairs and negative to positive ratio. Finally, we push the batch size to the extreme, up to one million, and find that the benefits of growing batch size quickly diminish, with a more reasonable batch size of 32k being sufficient. We hope our research motivates further explorations in improving the quality and efficiency of language-image pre-training.
* Xiaohua and Lucas contributed equally. arXiv v2: fix typo in
There has been a recent explosion of computer vision models which perform many tasks and are composed of an image encoder (usually a ViT) and an autoregressive decoder (usually a Transformer). However, most of this work simply presents one system and its results, leaving many questions regarding design decisions and trade-offs of such systems unanswered. In this work, we aim to provide such answers. We take a close look at autoregressive decoders for multi-task learning in multimodal computer vision, including classification, captioning, visual question answering, and optical character recognition. Through extensive systematic experiments, we study the effects of task and data mixture, training and regularization hyperparameters, conditioning type and specificity, modality combination, and more. Importantly, we compare these to well-tuned single-task baselines to highlight the cost incurred by multi-tasking. A key finding is that a small decoder learned on top of a frozen pretrained encoder works surprisingly well. We call this setup locked-image tuning with decoder (LiT-decoder). It can be seen as teaching a decoder to interact with a pretrained vision model via natural language.