We present multimodal conditioning modules (MCM) for enabling conditional image synthesis using pretrained diffusion models. Previous multimodal synthesis works rely on training networks from scratch or fine-tuning pretrained networks, both of which are computationally expensive for large, state-of-the-art diffusion models. Our method uses pretrained networks but does not require any updates to the diffusion network's parameters. MCM is a small module trained to modulate the diffusion network's predictions during sampling using 2D modalities (e.g., semantic segmentation maps, sketches) that were unseen during the original training of the diffusion model. We show that MCM enables user control over the spatial layout of the image and leads to increased control over the image generation process. Training MCM is cheap as it does not require gradients from the original diffusion net, consists of only $\sim$1$\%$ of the number of parameters of the base diffusion model, and is trained using only a limited number of training examples. We evaluate our method on unconditional and text-conditional models to demonstrate the improved control over the generated images and their alignment with respect to the conditioning inputs.
We present CoGS, a novel method for the style-conditioned, sketch-driven synthesis of images. CoGS enables exploration of diverse appearance possibilities for a given sketched object, enabling decoupled control over the structure and the appearance of the output. Coarse-grained control over object structure and appearance are enabled via an input sketch and an exemplar "style" conditioning image to a transformer-based sketch and style encoder to generate a discrete codebook representation. We map the codebook representation into a metric space, enabling fine-grained control over selection and interpolation between multiple synthesis options for a given image before generating the image via a vector quantized GAN (VQGAN) decoder. Our framework thereby unifies search and synthesis tasks, in that a sketch and style pair may be used to run an initial synthesis which may be refined via combination with similar results in a search corpus to produce an image more closely matching the user's intent. We show that our model, trained on the 125 object classes of our newly created Pseudosketches dataset, is capable of producing a diverse gamut of semantic content and appearance styles.
Perhaps surprisingly, recent studies have shown probabilistic model likelihoods have poor specificity for out-of-distribution (OOD) detection and often assign higher likelihoods to OOD data than in-distribution data. To ameliorate this issue we propose DoSE, the density of states estimator. Drawing on the statistical physics notion of ``density of states,'' the DoSE decision rule avoids direct comparison of model probabilities, and instead utilizes the ``probability of the model probability,'' or indeed the frequency of any reasonable statistic. The frequency is calculated using nonparametric density estimators (e.g., KDE and one-class SVM) which measure the typicality of various model statistics given the training data and from which we can flag test points with low typicality as anomalous. Unlike many other methods, DoSE requires neither labeled data nor OOD examples. DoSE is modular and can be trivially applied to any existing, trained model. We demonstrate DoSE's state-of-the-art performance against other unsupervised OOD detectors on previously established ``hard'' benchmarks.
* Submitted to NeurIPS. Corrected footnote from: "34th Conference on
Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS 2020), Vancouver, Canada" to
"Preprint. Under review."
Automatic Differentiation Variational Inference (ADVI) is a useful tool for efficiently learning probabilistic models in machine learning. Generally approximate posteriors learned by ADVI are forced to be unimodal in order to facilitate use of the reparameterization trick. In this paper, we show how stratified sampling may be used to enable mixture distributions as the approximate posterior, and derive a new lower bound on the evidence analogous to the importance weighted autoencoder (IWAE). We show that this "SIWAE" is a tighter bound than both IWAE and the traditional ELBO, both of which are special instances of this bound. We verify empirically that the traditional ELBO objective disfavors the presence of multimodal posterior distributions and may therefore not be able to fully capture structure in the latent space. Our experiments show that using the SIWAE objective allows the encoder to learn more complex distributions which regularly contain multimodality, resulting in higher accuracy and better calibration in the presence of incomplete, limited, or corrupted data.
Grasping and manipulating objects is an important human skill. Since hand-object contact is fundamental to grasping, capturing it can lead to important insights. However, observing contact through external sensors is challenging because of occlusion and the complexity of the human hand. We present ContactDB, a novel dataset of contact maps for household objects that captures the rich hand-object contact that occurs during grasping, enabled by use of a thermal camera. Participants in our study grasped 3D printed objects with a post-grasp functional intent. ContactDB includes 3750 3D meshes of 50 household objects textured with contact maps and 375K frames of synchronized RGB-D+thermal images. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large-scale dataset that records detailed contact maps for human grasps. Analysis of this data shows the influence of functional intent and object size on grasping, the tendency to touch/avoid 'active areas', and the high frequency of palm and proximal finger contact. Finally, we train state-of-the-art image translation and 3D convolution algorithms to predict diverse contact patterns from object shape. Data, code and models are available at https://contactdb.cc.gatech.edu.