Despite the existence of numerous colorization methods, several limitations still exist, such as lack of user interaction, inflexibility in local colorization, unnatural color rendering, insufficient color variation, and color overflow. To solve these issues, we introduce Control Color (CtrlColor), a multi-modal colorization method that leverages the pre-trained Stable Diffusion (SD) model, offering promising capabilities in highly controllable interactive image colorization. While several diffusion-based methods have been proposed, supporting colorization in multiple modalities remains non-trivial. In this study, we aim to tackle both unconditional and conditional image colorization (text prompts, strokes, exemplars) and address color overflow and incorrect color within a unified framework. Specifically, we present an effective way to encode user strokes to enable precise local color manipulation and employ a practical way to constrain the color distribution similar to exemplars. Apart from accepting text prompts as conditions, these designs add versatility to our approach. We also introduce a novel module based on self-attention and a content-guided deformable autoencoder to address the long-standing issues of color overflow and inaccurate coloring. Extensive comparisons show that our model outperforms state-of-the-art image colorization methods both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Guided depth super-resolution (GDSR) involves restoring missing depth details using the high-resolution RGB image of the same scene. Previous approaches have struggled with the heterogeneity and complementarity of the multi-modal inputs, and neglected the issues of modal misalignment, geometrical misalignment, and feature selection. In this study, we rethink some essential components in GDSR networks and propose a simple yet effective Dynamic Dual Alignment and Aggregation network (D2A2). D2A2 mainly consists of 1) a dynamic dual alignment module that adapts to alleviate the modal misalignment via a learnable domain alignment block and geometrically align cross-modal features by learning the offset; and 2) a mask-to-pixel feature aggregate module that uses the gated mechanism and pixel attention to filter out irrelevant texture noise from RGB features and combine the useful features with depth features. By combining the strengths of RGB and depth features while minimizing disturbance introduced by the RGB image, our method with simple reuse and redesign of basic components achieves state-of-the-art performance on multiple benchmark datasets. The code is available at https://github.com/JiangXinni/D2A2.
Recent progress in multi-modal conditioned face synthesis has enabled the creation of visually striking and accurately aligned facial images. Yet, current methods still face issues with scalability, limited flexibility, and a one-size-fits-all approach to control strength, not accounting for the differing levels of conditional entropy, a measure of unpredictability in data given some condition, across modalities. To address these challenges, we introduce a novel uni-modal training approach with modal surrogates, coupled with an entropy-aware modal-adaptive modulation, to support flexible, scalable, and scalable multi-modal conditioned face synthesis network. Our uni-modal training with modal surrogate that only leverage uni-modal data, use modal surrogate to decorate condition with modal-specific characteristic and serve as linker for inter-modal collaboration , fully learns each modality control in face synthesis process as well as inter-modal collaboration. The entropy-aware modal-adaptive modulation finely adjust diffusion noise according to modal-specific characteristics and given conditions, enabling well-informed step along denoising trajectory and ultimately leading to synthesis results of high fidelity and quality. Our framework improves multi-modal face synthesis under various conditions, surpassing current methods in image quality and fidelity, as demonstrated by our thorough experimental results.
Low-light image enhancement (LLIE) has achieved promising performance by employing conditional diffusion models. In this study, we propose ReCo-Diff, a novel approach that incorporates Retinex-based prior as an additional pre-processing condition to regulate the generating capabilities of the diffusion model. ReCo-Diff first leverages a pre-trained decomposition network to produce initial reflectance and illumination maps of the low-light image. Then, an adjustment network is introduced to suppress the noise in the reflectance map and brighten the illumination map, thus forming the learned Retinex-based condition. The condition is integrated into a refinement network, implementing Retinex-based conditional modules that offer sufficient guidance at both feature- and image-levels. By treating Retinex theory as a condition, ReCo-Diff presents a unique perspective for establishing an LLIE-specific diffusion model. Extensive experiments validate the rationality and superiority of our ReCo-Diff approach. The code will be made publicly available.
Underwater image enhancement (UIE) is a challenging task due to the complex degradation caused by underwater environments. To solve this issue, previous methods often idealize the degradation process, and neglect the impact of medium noise and object motion on the distribution of image features, limiting the generalization and adaptability of the model. Previous methods use the reference gradient that is constructed from original images and synthetic ground-truth images. This may cause the network performance to be influenced by some low-quality training data. Our approach utilizes predicted images to dynamically update pseudo-labels, adding a dynamic gradient to optimize the network's gradient space. This process improves image quality and avoids local optima. Moreover, we propose a Feature Restoration and Reconstruction module (FRR) based on a Channel Combination Inference (CCI) strategy and a Frequency Domain Smoothing module (FRS). These modules decouple other degradation features while reducing the impact of various types of noise on network performance. Experiments on multiple public datasets demonstrate the superiority of our method over existing state-of-the-art approaches, especially in achieving performance milestones: PSNR of 25.6dB and SSIM of 0.93 on the UIEB dataset. Its efficiency in terms of parameter size and inference time further attests to its broad practicality. The code will be made publicly available.
In underwater environments, variations in suspended particle concentration and turbidity cause severe image degradation, posing significant challenges to image enhancement (IE) and object detection (OD) tasks. Currently, in-air image enhancement and detection methods have made notable progress, but their application in underwater conditions is limited due to the complexity and variability of these environments. Fine-tuning in-air models saves high overhead and has more optional reference work than building an underwater model from scratch. To address these issues, we design a transfer plugin with multiple priors for converting in-air models to underwater applications, named IA2U. IA2U enables efficient application in underwater scenarios, thereby improving performance in Underwater IE and OD. IA2U integrates three types of underwater priors: the water type prior that characterizes the degree of image degradation, such as color and visibility; the degradation prior, focusing on differences in details and textures; and the sample prior, considering the environmental conditions at the time of capture and the characteristics of the photographed object. Utilizing a Transformer-like structure, IA2U employs these priors as query conditions and a joint task loss function to achieve hierarchical enhancement of task-level underwater image features, therefore considering the requirements of two different tasks, IE and OD. Experimental results show that IA2U combined with an in-air model can achieve superior performance in underwater image enhancement and object detection tasks. The code will be made publicly available.
Neural Radiance Field (NeRF) technology demonstrates immense potential in novel viewpoint synthesis tasks, due to its physics-based volumetric rendering process, which is particularly promising in underwater scenes. Addressing the limitations of existing underwater NeRF methods in handling light attenuation caused by the water medium and the lack of real Ground Truth (GT) supervision, this study proposes WaterHE-NeRF. We develop a new water-ray tracing field by Retinex theory that precisely encodes color, density, and illuminance attenuation in three-dimensional space. WaterHE-NeRF, through its illuminance attenuation mechanism, generates both degraded and clear multi-view images and optimizes image restoration by combining reconstruction loss with Wasserstein distance. Additionally, the use of histogram equalization (HE) as pseudo-GT enhances the network's accuracy in preserving original details and color distribution. Extensive experiments on real underwater datasets and synthetic datasets validate the effectiveness of WaterHE-NeRF. Our code will be made publicly available.
Underwater object detection is a crucial and challenging problem in marine engineering and aquatic robot. The difficulty is partly because of the degradation of underwater images caused by light selective absorption and scattering. Intuitively, enhancing underwater images can benefit high-level applications like underwater object detection. However, it is still unclear whether all object detectors need underwater image enhancement as pre-processing. We therefore pose the questions "Does underwater image enhancement really improve underwater object detection?" and "How does underwater image enhancement contribute to underwater object detection?". With these two questions, we conduct extensive studies. Specifically, we use 18 state-of-the-art underwater image enhancement algorithms, covering traditional, CNN-based, and GAN-based algorithms, to pre-process underwater object detection data. Then, we retrain 7 popular deep learning-based object detectors using the corresponding results enhanced by different algorithms, obtaining 126 underwater object detection models. Coupled with 7 object detection models retrained using raw underwater images, we employ these 133 models to comprehensively analyze the effect of underwater image enhancement on underwater object detection. We expect this study can provide sufficient exploration to answer the aforementioned questions and draw more attention of the community to the joint problem of underwater image enhancement and underwater object detection. The pre-trained models and results are publicly available and will be regularly updated. Project page: https://github.com/BIGWangYuDong/lqit/tree/main/configs/detection/uw_enhancement_affect_detection.
With the impressive progress in diffusion-based text-to-image generation, extending such powerful generative ability to text-to-video raises enormous attention. Existing methods either require large-scale text-video pairs and a large number of training resources or learn motions that are precisely aligned with template videos. It is non-trivial to balance a trade-off between the degree of generation freedom and the resource costs for video generation. In our study, we present a few-shot-based tuning framework, LAMP, which enables text-to-image diffusion model Learn A specific Motion Pattern with 8~16 videos on a single GPU. Specifically, we design a first-frame-conditioned pipeline that uses an off-the-shelf text-to-image model for content generation so that our tuned video diffusion model mainly focuses on motion learning. The well-developed text-to-image techniques can provide visually pleasing and diverse content as generation conditions, which highly improves video quality and generation freedom. To capture the features of temporal dimension, we expand the pretrained 2D convolution layers of the T2I model to our novel temporal-spatial motion learning layers and modify the attention blocks to the temporal level. Additionally, we develop an effective inference trick, shared-noise sampling, which can improve the stability of videos with computational costs. Our method can also be flexibly applied to other tasks, e.g. real-world image animation and video editing. Extensive experiments demonstrate that LAMP can effectively learn the motion pattern on limited data and generate high-quality videos. The code and models are available at https://rq-wu.github.io/projects/LAMP.
Flow-based propagation and spatiotemporal Transformer are two mainstream mechanisms in video inpainting (VI). Despite the effectiveness of these components, they still suffer from some limitations that affect their performance. Previous propagation-based approaches are performed separately either in the image or feature domain. Global image propagation isolated from learning may cause spatial misalignment due to inaccurate optical flow. Moreover, memory or computational constraints limit the temporal range of feature propagation and video Transformer, preventing exploration of correspondence information from distant frames. To address these issues, we propose an improved framework, called ProPainter, which involves enhanced ProPagation and an efficient Transformer. Specifically, we introduce dual-domain propagation that combines the advantages of image and feature warping, exploiting global correspondences reliably. We also propose a mask-guided sparse video Transformer, which achieves high efficiency by discarding unnecessary and redundant tokens. With these components, ProPainter outperforms prior arts by a large margin of 1.46 dB in PSNR while maintaining appealing efficiency.