Code Large Language Models (Code LLMs) are being increasingly employed in real-life applications, so evaluating them is critical. While the general accuracy of Code LLMs on individual tasks has been extensively evaluated, their self-consistency across different tasks is overlooked. Intuitively, a trustworthy model should be self-consistent when generating natural language specifications for its own code and generating code for its own specifications. Failure to preserve self-consistency reveals a lack of understanding of the shared semantics underlying natural language and programming language, and therefore undermines the trustworthiness of a model. In this paper, we first formally define the self-consistency of Code LLMs and then design a framework, IdentityChain, which effectively and efficiently evaluates the self-consistency and general accuracy of a model at the same time. We study eleven Code LLMs and show that they fail to preserve self-consistency, which is indeed a distinct aspect from general accuracy. Furthermore, we show that IdentityChain can be used as a model debugging tool to expose weaknesses of Code LLMs by demonstrating three major weaknesses that we identify in current models using IdentityChain. Our code is available at https://github.com/marcusm117/IdentityChain.
Deep learning vulnerability detection has shown promising results in recent years. However, an important challenge that still blocks it from being very useful in practice is that the model is not robust under perturbation and it cannot generalize well over the out-of-distribution (OOD) data, e.g., applying a trained model to unseen projects in real world. We hypothesize that this is because the model learned non-robust features, e.g., variable names, that have spurious correlations with labels. When the perturbed and OOD datasets no longer have the same spurious features, the model prediction fails. To address the challenge, in this paper, we introduced causality into deep learning vulnerability detection. Our approach CausalVul consists of two phases. First, we designed novel perturbations to discover spurious features that the model may use to make predictions. Second, we applied the causal learning algorithms, specifically, do-calculus, on top of existing deep learning models to systematically remove the use of spurious features and thus promote causal based prediction. Our results show that CausalVul consistently improved the model accuracy, robustness and OOD performance for all the state-of-the-art models and datasets we experimented. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that introduces do calculus based causal learning to software engineering models and shows it's indeed useful for improving the model accuracy, robustness and generalization. Our replication package is located at https://figshare.com/s/0ffda320dcb96c249ef2.
Realistic and controllable traffic simulation is a core capability that is necessary to accelerate autonomous vehicle (AV) development. However, current approaches for controlling learning-based traffic models require significant domain expertise and are difficult for practitioners to use. To remedy this, we present CTG++, a scene-level conditional diffusion model that can be guided by language instructions. Developing this requires tackling two challenges: the need for a realistic and controllable traffic model backbone, and an effective method to interface with a traffic model using language. To address these challenges, we first propose a scene-level diffusion model equipped with a spatio-temporal transformer backbone, which generates realistic and controllable traffic. We then harness a large language model (LLM) to convert a user's query into a loss function, guiding the diffusion model towards query-compliant generation. Through comprehensive evaluation, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method in generating realistic, query-compliant traffic simulations.
Large language models trained on code have shown great potential to increase productivity of software developers. Several execution-based benchmarks have been proposed to evaluate functional correctness of model-generated code on simple programming problems. Nevertheless, it is expensive to perform the same evaluation on complex real-world projects considering the execution cost. On the contrary, static analysis tools such as linters, which can detect errors without running the program, haven't been well explored for evaluating code generation models. In this work, we propose a static evaluation framework to quantify static errors in Python code completions, by leveraging Abstract Syntax Trees. Compared with execution-based evaluation, our method is not only more efficient, but also applicable to code in the wild. For experiments, we collect code context from open source repos to generate one million function bodies using public models. Our static analysis reveals that Undefined Name and Unused Variable are the most common errors among others made by language models. Through extensive studies, we also show the impact of sampling temperature, model size, and context on static errors in code completions.
We introduce a framework to measure how biases change before and after fine-tuning a large scale visual recognition model for a downstream task. Deep learning models trained on increasing amounts of data are known to encode societal biases. Many computer vision systems today rely on models typically pretrained on large scale datasets. While bias mitigation techniques have been developed for tuning models for downstream tasks, it is currently unclear what are the effects of biases already encoded in a pretrained model. Our framework incorporates sets of canonical images representing individual and pairs of concepts to highlight changes in biases for an array of off-the-shelf pretrained models across model sizes, dataset sizes, and training objectives. Through our analyses, we find that (1) supervised models trained on datasets such as ImageNet-21k are more likely to retain their pretraining biases regardless of the target dataset compared to self-supervised models. We also find that (2) models finetuned on larger scale datasets are more likely to introduce new biased associations. Our results also suggest that (3) biases can transfer to finetuned models and the finetuning objective and dataset can impact the extent of transferred biases.
ML-powered code generation aims to assist developers to write code in a more productive manner, by intelligently generating code blocks based on natural language prompts. Recently, large pretrained deep learning models have substantially pushed the boundary of code generation and achieved impressive performance. Despite their great power, the huge number of model parameters poses a significant threat to adapting them in a regular software development environment, where a developer might use a standard laptop or mid-size server to develop her code. Such large models incur significant resource usage (in terms of memory, latency, and dollars) as well as carbon footprint. Model compression is a promising approach to address these challenges. Several techniques are proposed to compress large pretrained models typically used for vision or textual data. Out of many available compression techniques, we identified that quantization is mostly applicable for code generation task as it does not require significant retraining cost. As quantization represents model parameters with lower-bit integer (e.g., int8), the model size and runtime latency would both benefit from such int representation. We extensively study the impact of quantized model on code generation tasks across different dimension: (i) resource usage and carbon footprint, (ii) accuracy, and (iii) robustness. To this end, through systematic experiments we find a recipe of quantization technique that could run even a $6$B model in a regular laptop without significant accuracy or robustness degradation. We further found the recipe is readily applicable to code summarization task as well.
With the advent of new and advanced programming languages, it becomes imperative to migrate legacy software to new programming languages. Unsupervised Machine Learning-based Program Translation could play an essential role in such migration, even without a sufficiently sizeable reliable corpus of parallel source code. However, these translators are far from perfect due to their statistical nature. This work investigates unsupervised program translators and where and why they fail. With in-depth error analysis of such failures, we have identified that the cases where such translators fail follow a few particular patterns. With this insight, we develop a rule-based program mutation engine, which pre-processes the input code if the input follows specific patterns and post-process the output if the output follows certain patterns. We show that our code processing tool, in conjunction with the program translator, can form a hybrid program translator and significantly improve the state-of-the-art. In the future, we envision an end-to-end program translation tool where programming domain knowledge can be embedded into an ML-based translation pipeline using pre- and post-processing steps.
Code generation models have achieved impressive performance. However, they tend to be brittle as slight edits to a prompt could lead to very different generations; these robustness properties, critical for user experience when deployed in real-life applications, are not well understood. Most existing works on robustness in text or code tasks have focused on classification, while robustness in generation tasks is an uncharted area and to date there is no comprehensive benchmark for robustness in code generation. In this paper, we propose ReCode, a comprehensive robustness evaluation benchmark for code generation models. We customize over 30 transformations specifically for code on docstrings, function and variable names, code syntax, and code format. They are carefully designed to be natural in real-life coding practice, preserve the original semantic meaning, and thus provide multifaceted assessments of a model's robustness performance. With human annotators, we verified that over 90% of the perturbed prompts do not alter the semantic meaning of the original prompt. In addition, we define robustness metrics for code generation models considering the worst-case behavior under each type of perturbation, taking advantage of the fact that executing the generated code can serve as objective evaluation. We demonstrate ReCode on SOTA models using HumanEval, MBPP, as well as function completion tasks derived from them. Interesting observations include: better robustness for CodeGen over InCoder and GPT-J; models are most sensitive to syntax perturbations; more challenging robustness evaluation on MBPP over HumanEval.
Controllable and realistic traffic simulation is critical for developing and verifying autonomous vehicles. Typical heuristic-based traffic models offer flexible control to make vehicles follow specific trajectories and traffic rules. On the other hand, data-driven approaches generate realistic and human-like behaviors, improving transfer from simulated to real-world traffic. However, to the best of our knowledge, no traffic model offers both controllability and realism. In this work, we develop a conditional diffusion model for controllable traffic generation (CTG) that allows users to control desired properties of trajectories at test time (e.g., reach a goal or follow a speed limit) while maintaining realism and physical feasibility through enforced dynamics. The key technical idea is to leverage recent advances from diffusion modeling and differentiable logic to guide generated trajectories to meet rules defined using signal temporal logic (STL). We further extend guidance to multi-agent settings and enable interaction-based rules like collision avoidance. CTG is extensively evaluated on the nuScenes dataset for diverse and composite rules, demonstrating improvement over strong baselines in terms of the controllability-realism tradeoff.
We present MBXP, an execution-based code completion benchmark in 10+ programming languages. This collection of datasets is generated by our conversion framework that translates prompts and test cases from the original MBPP dataset to the corresponding data in a target language. Based on this benchmark, we are able to evaluate code generation models in a multi-lingual fashion, and in particular discover generalization ability of language models on out-of-domain languages, advantages of large multi-lingual models over mono-lingual, benefits of few-shot prompting, and zero-shot translation abilities. In addition, we use our code generation model to perform large-scale bootstrapping to obtain synthetic canonical solutions in several languages. These solutions can be used for other code-related evaluations such as insertion-based, summarization, or code translation tasks where we demonstrate results and release as part of our benchmark.