Vision and Language (VL) models offer an effective method for aligning representation spaces of images and text, leading to numerous applications such as cross-modal retrieval, visual question answering, captioning, and more. However, the aligned image-text spaces learned by all the popular VL models are still suffering from the so-called `object bias' - their representations behave as `bags of nouns', mostly ignoring or downsizing the attributes, relations, and states of objects described/appearing in texts/images. Although some great attempts at fixing these `compositional reasoning' issues were proposed in the recent literature, the problem is still far from being solved. In this paper, we uncover two factors limiting the VL models' compositional reasoning performance. These two factors are properties of the paired VL dataset used for finetuning and pre-training the VL model: (i) the caption quality, or in other words `image-alignment', of the texts; and (ii) the `density' of the captions in the sense of mentioning all the details appearing on the image. We propose a fine-tuning approach for automatically treating these factors leveraging a standard VL dataset (CC3M). Applied to CLIP, we demonstrate its significant compositional reasoning performance increase of up to $\sim27\%$ over the base model, up to $\sim20\%$ over the strongest baseline, and by $6.7\%$ on average.
Large language models (LLMs) have been shown to be able to perform new tasks based on a few demonstrations or natural language instructions. While these capabilities have led to widespread adoption, most LLMs are developed by resource-rich organizations and are frequently kept from the public. As a step towards democratizing this powerful technology, we present BLOOM, a 176B-parameter open-access language model designed and built thanks to a collaboration of hundreds of researchers. BLOOM is a decoder-only Transformer language model that was trained on the ROOTS corpus, a dataset comprising hundreds of sources in 46 natural and 13 programming languages (59 in total). We find that BLOOM achieves competitive performance on a wide variety of benchmarks, with stronger results after undergoing multitask prompted finetuning. To facilitate future research and applications using LLMs, we publicly release our models and code under the Responsible AI License.
Foundation Models (FMs) have demonstrated unprecedented capabilities including zero-shot learning, high fidelity data synthesis, and out of domain generalization. However, as we show in this paper, FMs still have poor out-of-the-box performance on expert tasks (e.g. retrieval of car manuals technical illustrations from language queries), data for which is either unseen or belonging to a long-tail part of the data distribution of the huge datasets used for FM pre-training. This underlines the necessity to explicitly evaluate and finetune FMs on such expert tasks, arguably ones that appear the most in practical real-world applications. In this paper, we propose a first of its kind FETA benchmark built around the task of teaching FMs to understand technical documentation, via learning to match their graphical illustrations to corresponding language descriptions. Our FETA benchmark focuses on text-to-image and image-to-text retrieval in public car manuals and sales catalogue brochures. FETA is equipped with a procedure for completely automatic annotation extraction (code would be released upon acceptance), allowing easy extension of FETA to more documentation types and application domains in the future. Our automatic annotation leads to an automated performance metric shown to be consistent with metrics computed on human-curated annotations (also released). We provide multiple baselines and analysis of popular FMs on FETA leading to several interesting findings that we believe would be very valuable to the FM community, paving the way towards real-world application of FMs for practical expert tasks currently 'overlooked' by standard benchmarks focusing on common objects.
The ability to generalize learned representations across significantly different visual domains, such as between real photos, clipart, paintings, and sketches, is a fundamental capacity of the human visual system. In this paper, different from most cross-domain works that utilize some (or full) source domain supervision, we approach a relatively new and very practical Unsupervised Domain Generalization (UDG) setup of having no training supervision in neither source nor target domains. Our approach is based on self-supervised learning of a Bridge Across Domains (BrAD) - an auxiliary bridge domain accompanied by a set of semantics preserving visual (image-to-image) mappings to BrAD from each of the training domains. The BrAD and mappings to it are learned jointly (end-to-end) with a contrastive self-supervised representation model that semantically aligns each of the domains to its BrAD-projection, and hence implicitly drives all the domains (seen or unseen) to semantically align to each other. In this work, we show how using an edge-regularized BrAD our approach achieves significant gains across multiple benchmarks and a range of tasks, including UDG, Few-shot UDA, and unsupervised generalization across multi-domain datasets (including generalization to unseen domains and classes).
Nowadays, there is an abundance of data involving images and surrounding free-form text weakly corresponding to those images. Weakly Supervised phrase-Grounding (WSG) deals with the task of using this data to learn to localize (or to ground) arbitrary text phrases in images without any additional annotations. However, most recent SotA methods for WSG assume the existence of a pre-trained object detector, relying on it to produce the ROIs for localization. In this work, we focus on the task of Detector-Free WSG (DF-WSG) to solve WSG without relying on a pre-trained detector. We directly learn everything from the images and associated free-form text pairs, thus potentially gaining an advantage on the categories unsupported by the detector. The key idea behind our proposed Grounding by Separation (GbS) method is synthesizing `text to image-regions' associations by random alpha-blending of arbitrary image pairs and using the corresponding texts of the pair as conditions to recover the alpha map from the blended image via a segmentation network. At test time, this allows using the query phrase as a condition for a non-blended query image, thus interpreting the test image as a composition of a region corresponding to the phrase and the complement region. Using this approach we demonstrate a significant accuracy improvement, of up to $8.5\%$ over previous DF-WSG SotA, for a range of benchmarks including Flickr30K, Visual Genome, and ReferIt, as well as a significant complementary improvement (above $7\%$) over the detector-based approaches for WSG.
In this paper, we propose a new few-shot learning method called StarNet, which is an end-to-end trainable non-parametric star-model few-shot classifier. While being meta-trained using only image-level class labels, StarNet learns not only to predict the class labels for each query image of a few-shot task, but also to localize (via a heatmap) what it believes to be the key image regions supporting its prediction, thus effectively detecting the instances of the novel categories. The localization is enabled by the StarNet's ability to find large, arbitrarily shaped, semantically matching regions between all pairs of support and query images of a few-shot task. We evaluate StarNet on multiple few-shot classification benchmarks attaining significant state-of-the-art improvement on the CUB and ImageNetLOC-FS, and smaller improvements on other benchmarks. At the same time, in many cases, StarNet provides plausible explanations for its class label predictions, by highlighting the correctly paired novel category instances on the query and on its best matching support (for the predicted class). In addition, we test the proposed approach on the previously unexplored and challenging task of Weakly Supervised Few-Shot Object Detection (WS-FSOD), obtaining significant improvements over the baselines.
Example synthesis is one of the leading methods to tackle the problem of few-shot learning, where only a small number of samples per class are available. However, current synthesis approaches only address the scenario of a single category label per image. In this work, we propose a novel technique for synthesizing samples with multiple labels for the (yet unhandled) multi-label few-shot classification scenario. We propose to combine pairs of given examples in feature space, so that the resulting synthesized feature vectors will correspond to examples whose label sets are obtained through certain set operations on the label sets of the corresponding input pairs. Thus, our method is capable of producing a sample containing the intersection, union or set-difference of labels present in two input samples. As we show, these set operations generalize to labels unseen during training. This enables performing augmentation on examples of novel categories, thus, facilitating multi-label few-shot classifier learning. We conduct numerous experiments showing promising results for the label-set manipulation capabilities of the proposed approach, both directly (using the classification and retrieval metrics), and in the context of performing data augmentation for multi-label few-shot learning. We propose a benchmark for this new and challenging task and show that our method compares favorably to all the common baselines.