Robotics systems are complex, often consisted of basic services including SLAM for localization and mapping, Convolution Neural Networks for scene understanding, and Speech Recognition for user interaction, etc. Meanwhile, robots are mobile and usually have tight energy constraints, integrating these services onto an embedded platform with around 10 W of power consumption is critical to the proliferation of mobile robots. In this paper, we present a case study on integrating real-time localization, vision, and speech recognition services on a mobile SoC, Nvidia Jetson TX1, within about 10 W of power envelope. In addition, we explore whether offloading some of the services to cloud platform can lead to further energy efficiency while meeting the real-time requirements
Keyword spotting and in particular Wake-Up-Word (WUW) detection is a very important task for voice assistants. A very common issue of voice assistants is that they get easily activated by background noise like music, TV or background speech that accidentally triggers the device. In this paper, we propose a Speech Enhancement (SE) model adapted to the task of WUW detection that aims at increasing the recognition rate and reducing the false alarms in the presence of these types of noises. The SE model is a fully-convolutional denoising auto-encoder at waveform level and is trained using a log-Mel Spectrogram and waveform reconstruction losses together with the BCE loss of a simple WUW classification network. A new database has been purposely prepared for the task of recognizing the WUW in challenging conditions containing negative samples that are very phonetically similar to the keyword. The database is extended with public databases and an exhaustive data augmentation to simulate different noises and environments. The results obtained by concatenating the SE with a simple and state-of-the-art WUW detectors show that the SE does not have a negative impact on the recognition rate in quiet environments while increasing the performance in the presence of noise, especially when the SE and WUW detector are trained jointly end-to-end.
End-to-end automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems are increasingly popular due to their relative architectural simplicity and competitive performance. However, even though the average accuracy of these systems may be high, the performance on rare content words often lags behind hybrid ASR systems. To address this problem, second-pass rescoring is often applied. In this paper, we propose a second-pass system with multi-task learning, utilizing semantic targets (such as intent and slot prediction) to improve speech recognition performance. We show that our rescoring model with trained with these additional tasks outperforms the baseline rescoring model, trained with only the language modeling task, by 1.4% on a general test and by 2.6% on a rare word test set in term of word-error-rate relative (WERR).
Emotions recognition is commonly employed for health assessment. However, the typical metric for evaluation in therapy is based on patient-doctor appraisal. This process can fall into the issue of subjectivity, while also requiring healthcare professionals to deal with copious amounts of information. Thus, machine learning algorithms can be a useful tool for the classification of emotions. While several models have been developed in this domain, there is a lack of userfriendly representations of the emotion classification systems for therapy. We propose a tool which enables users to take speech samples and identify a range of emotions (happy, sad, angry, surprised, neutral, clam, disgust, and fear) from audio elements through a machine learning model. The dashboard is designed based on local therapists' needs for intuitive representations of speech data in order to gain insights and informative analyses of their sessions with their patients.
Recent advances in automatic speech recognition (ASR) have achieved accuracy levels comparable to human transcribers, which led researchers to debate if the machine has reached human performance. Previous work focused on the English language and modular hidden Markov model-deep neural network (HMM-DNN) systems. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive benchmarking for end-to-end transformer ASR, modular HMM-DNN ASR, and human speech recognition (HSR) on the Arabic language and its dialects. For the HSR, we evaluate linguist performance and lay-native speaker performance on a new dataset collected as a part of this study. For ASR the end-to-end work led to 12.5%, 27.5%, 33.8% WER; a new performance milestone for the MGB2, MGB3, and MGB5 challenges respectively. Our results suggest that human performance in the Arabic language is still considerably better than the machine with an absolute WER gap of 3.6% on average.
Recently, fully recurrent neural network (RNN) based end-to-end models have been proven to be effective for multi-speaker speech recognition in both the single-channel and multi-channel scenarios. In this work, we explore the use of Transformer models for these tasks by focusing on two aspects. First, we replace the RNN-based encoder-decoder in the speech recognition model with a Transformer architecture. Second, in order to use the Transformer in the masking network of the neural beamformer in the multi-channel case, we modify the self-attention component to be restricted to a segment rather than the whole sequence in order to reduce computation. Besides the model architecture improvements, we also incorporate an external dereverberation preprocessing, the weighted prediction error (WPE), enabling our model to handle reverberated signals. Experiments on the spatialized wsj1-2mix corpus show that the Transformer-based models achieve 40.9% and 25.6% relative WER reduction, down to 12.1% and 6.4% WER, under the anechoic condition in single-channel and multi-channel tasks, respectively, while in the reverberant case, our methods achieve 41.5% and 13.8% relative WER reduction, down to 16.5% and 15.2% WER.
Speech recognition is largely taking advantage of deep learning, showing that substantial benefits can be obtained by modern Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs). The most popular RNNs are Long Short-Term Memory (LSTMs), which typically reach state-of-the-art performance in many tasks thanks to their ability to learn long-term dependencies and robustness to vanishing gradients. Nevertheless, LSTMs have a rather complex design with three multiplicative gates, that might impair their efficient implementation. An attempt to simplify LSTMs has recently led to Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs), which are based on just two multiplicative gates. This paper builds on these efforts by further revising GRUs and proposing a simplified architecture potentially more suitable for speech recognition. The contribution of this work is two-fold. First, we suggest to remove the reset gate in the GRU design, resulting in a more efficient single-gate architecture. Second, we propose to replace tanh with ReLU activations in the state update equations. Results show that, in our implementation, the revised architecture reduces the per-epoch training time with more than 30% and consistently improves recognition performance across different tasks, input features, and noisy conditions when compared to a standard GRU.
Multimodal language analysis is a burgeoning field of NLP that aims to simultaneously model a speaker's words, acoustical annotations, and facial expressions. In this area, lexicon features usually outperform other modalities because they are pre-trained on large corpora via Transformer-based models. Despite their strong performance, training a new self-supervised learning (SSL) Transformer on any modality is not usually attainable due to insufficient data, which is the case in multimodal language learning. This work proposes a Transformer-Based Speech-Prefixed Language Model called TEASEL to approach the mentioned constraints without training a complete Transformer model. TEASEL model includes speech modality as a dynamic prefix besides the textual modality compared to a conventional language model. This method exploits a conventional pre-trained language model as a cross-modal Transformer model. We evaluated TEASEL for the multimodal sentiment analysis task defined by CMU-MOSI dataset. Extensive experiments show that our model outperforms unimodal baseline language models by 4% and outperforms the current multimodal state-of-the-art (SoTA) model by 1% in F1-score. Additionally, our proposed method is 72% smaller than the SoTA model.
We propose a multi-scale octave convolution layer to learn robust speech representations efficiently. Octave convolutions were introduced by Chen et al  in the computer vision field to reduce the spatial redundancy of the feature maps by decomposing the output of a convolutional layer into feature maps at two different spatial resolutions, one octave apart. This approach improved the efficiency as well as the accuracy of the CNN models. The accuracy gain was attributed to the enlargement of the receptive field in the original input space. We argue that octave convolutions likewise improve the robustness of learned representations due to the use of average pooling in the lower resolution group, acting as a low-pass filter. We test this hypothesis by evaluating on two noisy speech corpora - Aurora-4 and AMI. We extend the octave convolution concept to multiple resolution groups and multiple octaves. To evaluate the robustness of the inferred representations, we report the similarity between clean and noisy encodings using an affine projection loss as a proxy robustness measure. The results show that proposed method reduces the WER by up to 6.6% relative for Aurora-4 and 3.6% for AMI, while improving the computational efficiency of the CNN acoustic models.
Hateful and Toxic content has become a significant concern in today's world due to an exponential rise in social media. The increase in hate speech and harmful content motivated researchers to dedicate substantial efforts to the challenging direction of hateful content identification. In this task, we propose an approach to automatically classify hate speech and offensive content. We have used the datasets obtained from FIRE 2019 and 2020 shared tasks. We perform experiments by taking advantage of transfer learning models. We observed that the pre-trained BERT model and the multilingual-BERT model gave the best results. The code is made publically available at https://github.com/suman101112/hasoc-fire-2020.