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"photo style transfer": models, code, and papers

Photorealistic Style Transfer with Screened Poisson Equation

Sep 28, 2017
Roey Mechrez, Eli Shechtman, Lihi Zelnik-Manor

Recent work has shown impressive success in transferring painterly style to images. These approaches, however, fall short of photorealistic style transfer. Even when both the input and reference images are photographs, the output still exhibits distortions reminiscent of a painting. In this paper we propose an approach that takes as input a stylized image and makes it more photorealistic. It relies on the Screened Poisson Equation, maintaining the fidelity of the stylized image while constraining the gradients to those of the original input image. Our method is fast, simple, fully automatic and shows positive progress in making a stylized image photorealistic. Our results exhibit finer details and are less prone to artifacts than the state-of-the-art.

* presented in BMVC 2017 

A Content Transformation Block For Image Style Transfer

Mar 18, 2020
Dmytro Kotovenko, Artsiom Sanakoyeu, Pingchuan Ma, Sabine Lang, Björn Ommer

Style transfer has recently received a lot of attention, since it allows to study fundamental challenges in image understanding and synthesis. Recent work has significantly improved the representation of color and texture and computational speed and image resolution. The explicit transformation of image content has, however, been mostly neglected: while artistic style affects formal characteristics of an image, such as color, shape or texture, it also deforms, adds or removes content details. This paper explicitly focuses on a content-and style-aware stylization of a content image. Therefore, we introduce a content transformation module between the encoder and decoder. Moreover, we utilize similar content appearing in photographs and style samples to learn how style alters content details and we generalize this to other class details. Additionally, this work presents a novel normalization layer critical for high resolution image synthesis. The robustness and speed of our model enables a video stylization in real-time and high definition. We perform extensive qualitative and quantitative evaluations to demonstrate the validity of our approach.

* Accepted to CVPR 2019 

Sketch3T: Test-Time Training for Zero-Shot SBIR

Mar 28, 2022
Aneeshan Sain, Ayan Kumar Bhunia, Vaishnav Potlapalli, Pinaki Nath Chowdhury, Tao Xiang, Yi-Zhe Song

Zero-shot sketch-based image retrieval typically asks for a trained model to be applied as is to unseen categories. In this paper, we question to argue that this setup by definition is not compatible with the inherent abstract and subjective nature of sketches, i.e., the model might transfer well to new categories, but will not understand sketches existing in different test-time distribution as a result. We thus extend ZS-SBIR asking it to transfer to both categories and sketch distributions. Our key contribution is a test-time training paradigm that can adapt using just one sketch. Since there is no paired photo, we make use of a sketch raster-vector reconstruction module as a self-supervised auxiliary task. To maintain the fidelity of the trained cross-modal joint embedding during test-time update, we design a novel meta-learning based training paradigm to learn a separation between model updates incurred by this auxiliary task from those off the primary objective of discriminative learning. Extensive experiments show our model to outperform state of-the-arts, thanks to the proposed test-time adaption that not only transfers to new categories but also accommodates to new sketching styles.

* 10 pages, 5 figures. Accepted in CVPR 2022 

Streetscape augmentation using generative adversarial networks: insights related to health and wellbeing

May 14, 2019
Jasper S. Wijnands, Kerry A. Nice, Jason Thompson, Haifeng Zhao, Mark Stevenson

Deep learning using neural networks has provided advances in image style transfer, merging the content of one image (e.g., a photo) with the style of another (e.g., a painting). Our research shows this concept can be extended to analyse the design of streetscapes in relation to health and wellbeing outcomes. An Australian population health survey (n=34,000) was used to identify the spatial distribution of health and wellbeing outcomes, including general health and social capital. For each outcome, the most and least desirable locations formed two domains. Streetscape design was sampled using around 80,000 Google Street View images per domain. Generative adversarial networks translated these images from one domain to the other, preserving the main structure of the input image, but transforming the `style' from locations where self-reported health was bad to locations where it was good. These translations indicate that areas in Melbourne with good general health are characterised by sufficient green space and compactness of the urban environment, whilst streetscape imagery related to high social capital contained more and wider footpaths, fewer fences and more grass. Beyond identifying relationships, the method is a first step towards computer-generated design interventions that have the potential to improve population health and wellbeing.

* 20 pages, 8 figures. Preprint accepted for publication in Sustainable Cities and Society 

Good Artists Copy, Great Artists Steal: Model Extraction Attacks Against Image Translation Generative Adversarial Networks

Apr 26, 2021
Sebastian Szyller, Vasisht Duddu, Tommi Gröndahl, N. Asokan

Machine learning models are typically made available to potential client users via inference APIs. Model extraction attacks occur when a malicious client uses information gleaned from queries to the inference API of a victim model $F_V$ to build a surrogate model $F_A$ that has comparable functionality. Recent research has shown successful model extraction attacks against image classification, and NLP models. In this paper, we show the first model extraction attack against real-world generative adversarial network (GAN) image translation models. We present a framework for conducting model extraction attacks against image translation models, and show that the adversary can successfully extract functional surrogate models. The adversary is not required to know $F_V$'s architecture or any other information about it beyond its intended image translation task, and queries $F_V$'s inference interface using data drawn from the same domain as the training data for $F_V$. We evaluate the effectiveness of our attacks using three different instances of two popular categories of image translation: (1) Selfie-to-Anime and (2) Monet-to-Photo (image style transfer), and (3) Super-Resolution (super resolution). Using standard performance metrics for GANs, we show that our attacks are effective in each of the three cases -- the differences between $F_V$ and $F_A$, compared to the target are in the following ranges: Selfie-to-Anime: FID $13.36-68.66$, Monet-to-Photo: FID $3.57-4.40$, and Super-Resolution: SSIM: $0.06-0.08$ and PSNR: $1.43-4.46$. Furthermore, we conducted a large scale (125 participants) user study on Selfie-to-Anime and Monet-to-Photo to show that human perception of the images produced by the victim and surrogate models can be considered equivalent, within an equivalence bound of Cohen's $d=0.3$.

* 9 pages, 7 figures 

How to Make an Image More Memorable? A Deep Style Transfer Approach

Apr 06, 2017
Aliaksandr Siarohin, Gloria Zen, Cveta Majtanovic, Xavier Alameda-Pineda, Elisa Ricci, Nicu Sebe

Recent works have shown that it is possible to automatically predict intrinsic image properties like memorability. In this paper, we take a step forward addressing the question: "Can we make an image more memorable?". Methods for automatically increasing image memorability would have an impact in many application fields like education, gaming or advertising. Our work is inspired by the popular editing-by-applying-filters paradigm adopted in photo editing applications, like Instagram and Prisma. In this context, the problem of increasing image memorability maps to that of retrieving "memorabilizing" filters or style "seeds". Still, users generally have to go through most of the available filters before finding the desired solution, thus turning the editing process into a resource and time consuming task. In this work, we show that it is possible to automatically retrieve the best style seeds for a given image, thus remarkably reducing the number of human attempts needed to find a good match. Our approach leverages from recent advances in the field of image synthesis and adopts a deep architecture for generating a memorable picture from a given input image and a style seed. Importantly, to automatically select the best style a novel learning-based solution, also relying on deep models, is proposed. Our experimental evaluation, conducted on publicly available benchmarks, demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach for generating memorable images through automatic style seed selection

* Accepted at ACM ICMR 2017 

Wavelet Domain Style Transfer for an Effective Perception-distortion Tradeoff in Single Image Super-Resolution

Oct 09, 2019
Xin Deng, Ren Yang, Mai Xu, Pier Luigi Dragotti

In single image super-resolution (SISR), given a low-resolution (LR) image, one wishes to find a high-resolution (HR) version of it which is both accurate and photo-realistic. Recently, it has been shown that there exists a fundamental tradeoff between low distortion and high perceptual quality, and the generative adversarial network (GAN) is demonstrated to approach the perception-distortion (PD) bound effectively. In this paper, we propose a novel method based on wavelet domain style transfer (WDST), which achieves a better PD tradeoff than the GAN based methods. Specifically, we propose to use 2D stationary wavelet transform (SWT) to decompose one image into low-frequency and high-frequency sub-bands. For the low-frequency sub-band, we improve its objective quality through an enhancement network. For the high-frequency sub-band, we propose to use WDST to effectively improve its perceptual quality. By feat of the perfect reconstruction property of wavelets, these sub-bands can be re-combined to obtain an image which has simultaneously high objective and perceptual quality. The numerical results on various datasets show that our method achieves the best trade-off between the distortion and perceptual quality among the existing state-of-the-art SISR methods.


Protecting Facial Privacy: Generating Adversarial Identity Masks via Style-robust Makeup Transfer

Mar 28, 2022
Shengshan Hu, Xiaogeng Liu, Yechao Zhang, Minghui Li, Leo Yu Zhang, Hai Jin, Libing Wu

While deep face recognition (FR) systems have shown amazing performance in identification and verification, they also arouse privacy concerns for their excessive surveillance on users, especially for public face images widely spread on social networks. Recently, some studies adopt adversarial examples to protect photos from being identified by unauthorized face recognition systems. However, existing methods of generating adversarial face images suffer from many limitations, such as awkward visual, white-box setting, weak transferability, making them difficult to be applied to protect face privacy in reality. In this paper, we propose adversarial makeup transfer GAN (AMT-GAN), a novel face protection method aiming at constructing adversarial face images that preserve stronger black-box transferability and better visual quality simultaneously. AMT-GAN leverages generative adversarial networks (GAN) to synthesize adversarial face images with makeup transferred from reference images. In particular, we introduce a new regularization module along with a joint training strategy to reconcile the conflicts between the adversarial noises and the cycle consistence loss in makeup transfer, achieving a desirable balance between the attack strength and visual changes. Extensive experiments verify that compared with state of the arts, AMT-GAN can not only preserve a comfortable visual quality, but also achieve a higher attack success rate over commercial FR APIs, including Face++, Aliyun, and Microsoft.

* Accepted by CVPR2022. Code is available at 

Learning Selfie-Friendly Abstraction from Artistic Style Images

May 21, 2018
Yicun Liu, Jimmy Ren, Jianbo Liu, Jiawei Zhang, Xiaohao Chen

Artistic style transfer can be thought as a process to generate different versions of abstraction of the original image. However, most of the artistic style transfer operators are not optimized for human faces thus mainly suffers from two undesirable features when applying them to selfies. First, the edges of human faces may unpleasantly deviate from the ones in the original image. Second, the skin color is far from faithful to the original one which is usually problematic in producing quality selfies. In this paper, we take a different approach and formulate this abstraction process as a gradient domain learning problem. We aim to learn a type of abstraction which not only achieves the specified artistic style but also circumvents the two aforementioned drawbacks thus highly applicable to selfie photography. We also show that our method can be directly generalized to videos with high inter-frame consistency. Our method is also robust to non-selfie images, and the generalization to various kinds of real-life scenes is discussed. We will make our code publicly available.