Dynamic topic modeling facilitates the identification of topical trends over time in temporal collections of unstructured documents. We introduce a novel unsupervised neural dynamic topic model named as Recurrent Neural Network-Replicated Softmax Model (RNNRSM), where the discovered topics at each time influence the topic discovery in the subsequent time steps. We account for the temporal ordering of documents by explicitly modeling a joint distribution of latent topical dependencies over time, using distributional estimators with temporal recurrent connections. Applying RNN-RSM to 19 years of articles on NLP research, we demonstrate that compared to state-of-the art topic models, RNNRSM shows better generalization, topic interpretation, evolution and trends. We also introduce a metric (named as SPAN) to quantify the capability of dynamic topic model to capture word evolution in topics over time.
Topic models are a family of statistical-based algorithms to summarize, explore and index large collections of text documents. After a decade of research led by computer scientists, topic models have spread to social science as a new generation of data-driven social scientists have searched for tools to explore large collections of unstructured text. Recently, social scientists have contributed to topic model literature with developments in causal inference and tools for handling the problem of multi-modality. In this paper, I provide a literature review on the evolution of topic modeling including extensions for document covariates, methods for evaluation and interpretation, and advances in interactive visualizations along with each aspect's relevance and application for social science research.
We propose a new topic modeling procedure that takes advantage of the fact that the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) log likelihood function is asymptotically equivalent to the logarithm of the volume of the topic simplex. This allows topic modeling to be reformulated as finding the probability simplex that minimizes its volume and encloses the documents that are represented as distributions over words. A convex relaxation of the minimum volume topic model optimization is proposed, and it is shown that the relaxed problem has the same global minimum as the original problem under the separability assumption and the sufficiently scattered assumption introduced by Arora et al. (2013) and Huang et al. (2016). A locally convergent alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) approach is introduced for solving the relaxed minimum volume problem. Numerical experiments illustrate the benefits of our approach in terms of computation time and topic recovery performance.
Analyzing short texts infers discriminative and coherent latent topics that is a critical and fundamental task since many real-world applications require semantic understanding of short texts. Traditional long text topic modeling algorithms (e.g., PLSA and LDA) based on word co-occurrences cannot solve this problem very well since only very limited word co-occurrence information is available in short texts. Therefore, short text topic modeling has already attracted much attention from the machine learning research community in recent years, which aims at overcoming the problem of sparseness in short texts. In this survey, we conduct a comprehensive review of various short text topic modeling techniques proposed in the literature. We present three categories of methods based on Dirichlet multinomial mixture, global word co-occurrences, and self-aggregation, with example of representative approaches in each category and analysis of their performance on various tasks. We develop the first comprehensive open-source library, called STTM, for use in Java that integrates all surveyed algorithms within a unified interface, benchmark datasets, to facilitate the expansion of new methods in this research field. Finally, we evaluate these state-of-the-art methods on many real-world datasets and compare their performance against one another and versus long text topic modeling algorithm.
Recent research in opinion mining proposed word embedding-based topic modeling methods that provide superior coherence compared to traditional topic modeling. In this paper, we demonstrate how these methods can be used to display correlated topic models on social media texts using SocialVisTUM, our proposed interactive visualization toolkit. It displays a graph with topics as nodes and their correlations as edges. Further details are displayed interactively to support the exploration of large text collections, e.g., representative words and sentences of topics, topic and sentiment distributions, hierarchical topic clustering, and customizable, predefined topic labels. The toolkit optimizes automatically on custom data for optimal coherence. We show a working instance of the toolkit on data crawled from English social media discussions about organic food consumption. The visualization confirms findings of a qualitative consumer research study. SocialVisTUM and its training procedures are accessible online.
In this work, we compare different neural topic modeling methods in learning the topical propensities of different psychiatric conditions from the psychotherapy session transcripts parsed from speech recordings. We also incorporate temporal modeling to put this additional interpretability to action by parsing out topic similarities as a time series in a turn-level resolution. We believe this topic modeling framework can offer interpretable insights for the therapist to optimally decide his or her strategy and improve the psychotherapy effectiveness.
In topic modeling, many algorithms that guarantee identifiability of the topics have been developed under the premise that there exist anchor words -- i.e., words that only appear (with positive probability) in one topic. Follow-up work has resorted to three or higher-order statistics of the data corpus to relax the anchor word assumption. Reliable estimates of higher-order statistics are hard to obtain, however, and the identification of topics under those models hinges on uncorrelatedness of the topics, which can be unrealistic. This paper revisits topic modeling based on second-order moments, and proposes an anchor-free topic mining framework. The proposed approach guarantees the identification of the topics under a much milder condition compared to the anchor-word assumption, thereby exhibiting much better robustness in practice. The associated algorithm only involves one eigen-decomposition and a few small linear programs. This makes it easy to implement and scale up to very large problem instances. Experiments using the TDT2 and Reuters-21578 corpus demonstrate that the proposed anchor-free approach exhibits very favorable performance (measured using coherence, similarity count, and clustering accuracy metrics) compared to the prior art.
Topic models provide a useful text-mining tool for learning, extracting and discovering latent structures in large text corpora. Although a plethora of methods have been proposed for topic modeling, a formal theoretical investigation on the statistical identifiability and accuracy of latent topic estimation is lacking in the literature. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) of latent topics based on a specific integrated likelihood, which is naturally connected to the concept of volume minimization in computational geometry. Theoretically, we introduce a new set of geometric conditions for topic model identifiability, which are weaker than conventional separability conditions relying on the existence of anchor words or pure topic documents. We conduct finite-sample error analysis for the proposed estimator and discuss the connection of our results with existing ones. We conclude with empirical studies on both simulated and real datasets.
We present Wikipedia-based Polyglot Dirichlet Allocation (WikiPDA), a crosslingual topic model that learns to represent Wikipedia articles written in any language as distributions over a common set of language-independent topics. It leverages the fact that Wikipedia articles link to each other and are mapped to concepts in the Wikidata knowledge base, such that, when represented as bags of links, articles are inherently language-independent. WikiPDA works in two steps, by first densifying bags of links using matrix completion and then training a standard monolingual topic model. A human evaluation shows that WikiPDA produces more coherent topics than monolingual text-based LDA, thus offering crosslinguality at no cost. We demonstrate WikiPDA's utility in two applications: a study of topical biases in 28 Wikipedia editions, and crosslingual supervised classification. Finally, we highlight WikiPDA's capacity for zero-shot language transfer, where a model is reused for new languages without any fine-tuning.
Topic modeling, a method for extracting the underlying themes from a collection of documents, is an increasingly important component of the design of intelligent systems enabling the sense-making of highly dynamic and diverse streams of text data. Traditional methods such as Dynamic Topic Modeling (DTM) do not lend themselves well to direct parallelization because of dependencies from one time step to another. In this paper, we introduce and empirically analyze Clustered Latent Dirichlet Allocation (CLDA), a method for extracting dynamic latent topics from a collection of documents. Our approach is based on data decomposition in which the data is partitioned into segments, followed by topic modeling on the individual segments. The resulting local models are then combined into a global solution using clustering. The decomposition and resulting parallelization leads to very fast runtime even on very large datasets. Our approach furthermore provides insight into how the composition of topics changes over time and can also be applied using other data partitioning strategies over any discrete features of the data, such as geographic features or classes of users. In this paper CLDA is applied successfully to seventeen years of NIPS conference papers (2,484 documents and 3,280,697 words), seventeen years of computer science journal abstracts (533,560 documents and 32,551,540 words), and to forty years of the PubMed corpus (4,025,978 documents and 273,853,980 words).