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"Text Classification": models, code, and papers

KINNEWS and KIRNEWS: Benchmarking Cross-Lingual Text Classification for Kinyarwanda and Kirundi

Oct 23, 2020
Rubungo Andre Niyongabo, Hong Qu, Julia Kreutzer, Li Huang

Recent progress in text classification has been focused on high-resource languages such as English and Chinese. For low-resource languages, amongst them most African languages, the lack of well-annotated data and effective preprocessing, is hindering the progress and the transfer of successful methods. In this paper, we introduce two news datasets (KINNEWS and KIRNEWS) for multi-class classification of news articles in Kinyarwanda and Kirundi, two low-resource African languages. The two languages are mutually intelligible, but while Kinyarwanda has been studied in Natural Language Processing (NLP) to some extent, this work constitutes the first study on Kirundi. Along with the datasets, we provide statistics, guidelines for preprocessing, and monolingual and cross-lingual baseline models. Our experiments show that training embeddings on the relatively higher-resourced Kinyarwanda yields successful cross-lingual transfer to Kirundi. In addition, the design of the created datasets allows for a wider use in NLP beyond text classification in future studies, such as representation learning, cross-lingual learning with more distant languages, or as base for new annotations for tasks such as parsing, POS tagging, and NER. The datasets, stopwords, and pre-trained embeddings are publicly available at https://github.com/Andrews2017/KINNEWS-and-KIRNEWS-Corpus .

* COLING 2020 
  
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On Sensitivity of Deep Learning Based Text Classification Algorithms to Practical Input Perturbations

Jan 23, 2022
Aamir Miyajiwala, Arnav Ladkat, Samiksha Jagadale, Raviraj Joshi

Text classification is a fundamental Natural Language Processing task that has a wide variety of applications, where deep learning approaches have produced state-of-the-art results. While these models have been heavily criticized for their black-box nature, their robustness to slight perturbations in input text has been a matter of concern. In this work, we carry out a data-focused study evaluating the impact of systematic practical perturbations on the performance of the deep learning based text classification models like CNN, LSTM, and BERT-based algorithms. The perturbations are induced by the addition and removal of unwanted tokens like punctuation and stop-words that are minimally associated with the final performance of the model. We show that these deep learning approaches including BERT are sensitive to such legitimate input perturbations on four standard benchmark datasets SST2, TREC-6, BBC News, and tweet_eval. We observe that BERT is more susceptible to the removal of tokens as compared to the addition of tokens. Moreover, LSTM is slightly more sensitive to input perturbations as compared to CNN based model. The work also serves as a practical guide to assessing the impact of discrepancies in train-test conditions on the final performance of models.

* Accepted at Computing Conference 2022 
  
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LegaLMFiT: Efficient Short Legal Text Classification with LSTM Language Model Pre-Training

Sep 15, 2021
Benjamin Clavié, Akshita Gheewala, Paul Briton, Marc Alphonsus, Rym Laabiyad, Francesco Piccoli

Large Transformer-based language models such as BERT have led to broad performance improvements on many NLP tasks. Domain-specific variants of these models have demonstrated excellent performance on a variety of specialised tasks. In legal NLP, BERT-based models have led to new state-of-the-art results on multiple tasks. The exploration of these models has demonstrated the importance of capturing the specificity of the legal language and its vocabulary. However, such approaches suffer from high computational costs, leading to a higher ecological impact and lower accessibility. Our findings, focusing on English language legal text, show that lightweight LSTM-based Language Models are able to capture enough information from a small legal text pretraining corpus and achieve excellent performance on short legal text classification tasks. This is achieved with a significantly reduced computational overhead compared to BERT-based models. However, our method also shows degraded performance on a more complex task, multi-label classification of longer documents, highlighting the limitations of this lightweight approach.

  
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Cross-Lingual Task-Specific Representation Learning for Text Classification in Resource Poor Languages

Jun 10, 2018
Nurendra Choudhary, Rajat Singh, Manish Shrivastava

Neural network models have shown promising results for text classification. However, these solutions are limited by their dependence on the availability of annotated data. The prospect of leveraging resource-rich languages to enhance the text classification of resource-poor languages is fascinating. The performance on resource-poor languages can significantly improve if the resource availability constraints can be offset. To this end, we present a twin Bidirectional Long Short Term Memory (Bi-LSTM) network with shared parameters consolidated by a contrastive loss function (based on a similarity metric). The model learns the representation of resource-poor and resource-rich sentences in a common space by using the similarity between their assigned annotation tags. Hence, the model projects sentences with similar tags closer and those with different tags farther from each other. We evaluated our model on the classification tasks of sentiment analysis and emoji prediction for resource-poor languages - Hindi and Telugu and resource-rich languages - English and Spanish. Our model significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches in both the tasks across all metrics.

* This work was presented at 1st Workshop on Humanizing AI (HAI) at IJCAI'18 in Stockholm, Sweden. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1804.00805, arXiv:1804.01855 
  
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Adversarial Reprogramming of Sequence Classification Neural Networks

Sep 07, 2018
Paarth Neekhara, Shehzeen Hussain, Shlomo Dubnov, Farinaz Koushanfar

Adversarial Reprogramming has demonstrated success in utilizing pre-trained neural network classifiers for alternative classification tasks without modification to the original network. An adversary in such an attack scenario trains an additive contribution to the inputs to repurpose the neural network for the new classification task. While this reprogramming approach works for neural networks with a continuous input space such as that of images, it is not directly applicable to neural networks trained for tasks such as text classification, where the input space is discrete. Repurposing such classification networks would require the attacker to learn an adversarial program that maps inputs from one discrete space to the other. In this work, we introduce a context-based vocabulary remapping model to reprogram neural networks trained on a specific sequence classification task, for a new sequence classification task desired by the adversary. We propose training procedures for this adversarial program in both white-box and black-box settings. We demonstrate the application of our model by adversarially repurposing various text-classification models including LSTM, bi-directional LSTM and CNN for alternate classification tasks.

* 10 pages, 5 figures, 2 tables 
  
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CatVRNN: Generating Category Texts via Multi-task Learning

Jul 12, 2021
Pengsen Cheng, Jiayong Liu, Jinqiao Dai

Controlling the model to generate texts of different categories is a challenging task that is getting more and more attention. Recently, generative adversarial net (GAN) has shown promising results in category text generation. However, the texts generated by GANs usually suffer from the problems of mode collapse and training instability. To avoid the above problems, we propose a novel model named category-aware variational recurrent neural network (CatVRNN), which is inspired by multi-task learning. In our model, generation and classification are trained simultaneously, aiming at generating texts of different categories. Moreover, the use of multi-task learning can improve the quality of generated texts, when the classification task is appropriate. And we propose a function to initialize the hidden state of CatVRNN to force model to generate texts of a specific category. Experimental results on three datasets demonstrate that our model can do better than several state-of-the-art text generation methods based GAN in the category accuracy and quality of generated texts.

  
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Improving Visual Reasoning by Exploiting The Knowledge in Texts

Feb 09, 2021
Sahand Sharifzadeh, Sina Moayed Baharlou, Martin Schmitt, Hinrich Schütze, Volker Tresp

This paper presents a new framework for training image-based classifiers from a combination of texts and images with very few labels. We consider a classification framework with three modules: a backbone, a relational reasoning component, and a classification component. While the backbone can be trained from unlabeled images by self-supervised learning, we can fine-tune the relational reasoning and the classification components from external sources of knowledge instead of annotated images. By proposing a transformer-based model that creates structured knowledge from textual input, we enable the utilization of the knowledge in texts. We show that, compared to the supervised baselines with 1% of the annotated images, we can achieve ~8x more accurate results in scene graph classification, ~3x in object classification, and ~1.5x in predicate classification.

  
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Metadata-Induced Contrastive Learning for Zero-Shot Multi-Label Text Classification

Feb 11, 2022
Yu Zhang, Zhihong Shen, Chieh-Han Wu, Boya Xie, Junheng Hao, Ye-Yi Wang, Kuansan Wang, Jiawei Han

Large-scale multi-label text classification (LMTC) aims to associate a document with its relevant labels from a large candidate set. Most existing LMTC approaches rely on massive human-annotated training data, which are often costly to obtain and suffer from a long-tailed label distribution (i.e., many labels occur only a few times in the training set). In this paper, we study LMTC under the zero-shot setting, which does not require any annotated documents with labels and only relies on label surface names and descriptions. To train a classifier that calculates the similarity score between a document and a label, we propose a novel metadata-induced contrastive learning (MICoL) method. Different from previous text-based contrastive learning techniques, MICoL exploits document metadata (e.g., authors, venues, and references of research papers), which are widely available on the Web, to derive similar document-document pairs. Experimental results on two large-scale datasets show that: (1) MICoL significantly outperforms strong zero-shot text classification and contrastive learning baselines; (2) MICoL is on par with the state-of-the-art supervised metadata-aware LMTC method trained on 10K-200K labeled documents; and (3) MICoL tends to predict more infrequent labels than supervised methods, thus alleviates the deteriorated performance on long-tailed labels.

* 12 pages; Accepted to WWW 2022 
  
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