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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

MealRec: A Meal Recommendation Dataset

May 24, 2022
Ming Li, Lin Li, Qing Xie, Jingling Yuan, Xiaohui Tao

Bundle recommendation systems aim to recommend a bundle of items for a user to consider as a whole. They have become a norm in modern life and have been applied to many real-world settings, such as product bundle recommendation, music playlist recommendation and travel package recommendation. However, compared to studies of bundle recommendation approaches in areas such as online shopping and digital music services, research on meal recommendations for restaurants in the hospitality industry has made limited progress, due largely to the lack of high-quality benchmark datasets. A publicly available dataset specialising in meal recommendation research for the research community is in urgent demand. In this paper, we introduce a meal recommendation dataset (MealRec) that aims to facilitate future research. MealRec is constructed from the user review records of, covering 1,500+ users, 7,200+ recipes and 3,800+ meals. Each recipe is described with rich information, such as ingredients, instructions, pictures, category and tags, etc; and each meal is three-course, consisting of an appetizer, a main dish and a dessert. Furthermore, we propose a category-constrained meal recommendation model that is evaluated through comparative experiments with several state-of-the-art bundle recommendation methods on MealRec. Experimental results confirm the superiority of our model and demonstrate that MealRec is a promising testbed for meal recommendation related research. The MealRec dataset and the source code of our proposed model are available at for access and reproducibility.


Collaborative Personalized Web Recommender System using Entropy based Similarity Measure

Jan 20, 2012
Harita Mehta, Shveta Kundra Bhatia, Punam Bedi, V. S. Dixit

On the internet, web surfers, in the search of information, always strive for recommendations. The solutions for generating recommendations become more difficult because of exponential increase in information domain day by day. In this paper, we have calculated entropy based similarity between users to achieve solution for scalability problem. Using this concept, we have implemented an online user based collaborative web recommender system. In this model based collaborative system, the user session is divided into two levels. Entropy is calculated at both the levels. It is shown that from the set of valuable recommenders obtained at level I; only those recommenders having lower entropy at level II than entropy at level I, served as trustworthy recommenders. Finally, top N recommendations are generated from such trustworthy recommenders for an online user.

* IJCSI, Vol 8, Issue 6, No 3, Nov 2011 
* 10 pages 

A Survey on Personality-Aware Recommendation Systems

Jan 28, 2021
Sahraoui Dhelim, Nyothiri Aung, Mohammed Amine Bouras, Huansheng Ning, Erik Cambria

With the emergence of personality computing as a new research field related to artificial intelligence and personality psychology, we have witnessed an unprecedented proliferation of personality-aware recommendation systems. Unlike conventional recommendation systems, these new systems solve traditional problems such as the cold start and data sparsity problems. This survey aims to study and systematically classify personality-aware recommendation systems. To the best of our knowledge, this survey is the first that focuses on personality-aware recommendation systems. We explore the different design choices of personality-aware recommendation systems, by comparing their personality modeling methods, as well as their recommendation techniques. Furthermore, we present the commonly used datasets and point out some of the challenges of personality-aware recommendation systems.

* Under review in Artificial Intelligence Review 

User Tampering in Reinforcement Learning Recommender Systems

Sep 09, 2021
Charles Evans, Atoosa Kasirzadeh

This paper provides the first formalisation and empirical demonstration of a particular safety concern in reinforcement learning (RL)-based news and social media recommendation algorithms. This safety concern is what we call "user tampering" -- a phenomenon whereby an RL-based recommender system may manipulate a media user's opinions, preferences and beliefs via its recommendations as part of a policy to increase long-term user engagement. We provide a simulation study of a media recommendation problem constrained to the recommendation of political content, and demonstrate that a Q-learning algorithm consistently learns to exploit its opportunities to 'polarise' simulated 'users' with its early recommendations in order to have more consistent success with later recommendations catering to that polarisation. Finally, we argue that given our findings, designing an RL-based recommender system which cannot learn to exploit user tampering requires making the metric for the recommender's success independent of observable signals of user engagement, and thus that a media recommendation system built solely with RL is necessarily either unsafe, or almost certainly commercially unviable.

* Accepted for presentation at the 4th FAccTRec Workshop on Responsible Recommendation (FAccTRec '21) 

Making Recommender Systems Forget: Learning and Unlearning for Erasable Recommendation

Mar 22, 2022
Yuyuan Li, Xiaolin Zheng, Chaochao Chen, Junlin Liu

Privacy laws and regulations enforce data-driven systems, e.g., recommender systems, to erase the data that concern individuals. As machine learning models potentially memorize the training data, data erasure should also unlearn the data lineage in models, which raises increasing interest in the problem of Machine Unlearning (MU). However, existing MU methods cannot be directly applied into recommendation. The basic idea of most recommender systems is collaborative filtering, but existing MU methods ignore the collaborative information across users and items. In this paper, we propose a general erasable recommendation framework, namely LASER, which consists of Group module and SeqTrain module. Firstly, Group module partitions users into balanced groups based on their similarity of collaborative embedding learned via hypergraph. Then SeqTrain module trains the model sequentially on all groups with curriculum learning. Both theoretical analysis and experiments on two real-world datasets demonstrate that LASER can not only achieve efficient unlearning, but also outperform the state-of-the-art unlearning framework in terms of model utility.


The Architecture of Mr. DLib's Scientific Recommender-System API

Nov 26, 2018
Joeran Beel, Andrew Collins, Akiko Aizawa

Recommender systems in academia are not widely available. This may be in part due to the difficulty and cost of developing and maintaining recommender systems. Many operators of academic products such as digital libraries and reference managers avoid this effort, although a recommender system could provide significant benefits to their users. In this paper, we introduce Mr. DLib's "Recommendations as-a-Service" (RaaS) API that allows operators of academic products to easily integrate a scientific recommender system into their products. Mr. DLib generates recommendations for research articles but in the future, recommendations may include call for papers, grants, etc. Operators of academic products can request recommendations from Mr. DLib and display these recommendations to their users. Mr. DLib can be integrated in just a few hours or days; creating an equivalent recommender system from scratch would require several months for an academic operator. Mr. DLib has been used by GESIS Sowiport and by the reference manager JabRef. Mr. DLib is open source and its goal is to facilitate the application of, and research on, scientific recommender systems. In this paper, we present the motivation for Mr. DLib, the architecture and details about the effectiveness. Mr. DLib has delivered 94m recommendations over a span of two years with an average click-through rate of 0.12%.


An MDP-based Recommender System

May 16, 2015
Guy Shani, Ronen I. Brafman, David Heckerman

Typical Recommender systems adopt a static view of the recommendation process and treat it as a prediction problem. We argue that it is more appropriate to view the problem of generating recommendations as a sequential decision problem and, consequently, that Markov decision processes (MDP) provide a more appropriate model for Recommender systems. MDPs introduce two benefits: they take into account the long-term effects of each recommendation, and they take into account the expected value of each recommendation. To succeed in practice, an MDP-based Recommender system must employ a strong initial model; and the bulk of this paper is concerned with the generation of such a model. In particular, we suggest the use of an n-gram predictive model for generating the initial MDP. Our n-gram model induces a Markov-chain model of user behavior whose predictive accuracy is greater than that of existing predictive models. We describe our predictive model in detail and evaluate its performance on real data. In addition, we show how the model can be used in an MDP-based Recommender system.

* Appears in Proceedings of the Eighteenth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI2002) 

Feature Interaction Interpretability: A Case for Explaining Ad-Recommendation Systems via Neural Interaction Detection

Jun 19, 2020
Michael Tsang, Dehua Cheng, Hanpeng Liu, Xue Feng, Eric Zhou, Yan Liu

Recommendation is a prevalent application of machine learning that affects many users; therefore, it is important for recommender models to be accurate and interpretable. In this work, we propose a method to both interpret and augment the predictions of black-box recommender systems. In particular, we propose to interpret feature interactions from a source recommender model and explicitly encode these interactions in a target recommender model, where both source and target models are black-boxes. By not assuming the structure of the recommender system, our approach can be used in general settings. In our experiments, we focus on a prominent use of machine learning recommendation: ad-click prediction. We found that our interaction interpretations are both informative and predictive, e.g., significantly outperforming existing recommender models. What's more, the same approach to interpret interactions can provide new insights into domains even beyond recommendation, such as text and image classification.

* Published in ICLR 2020 

Diversity-Promoting Deep Reinforcement Learning for Interactive Recommendation

Mar 19, 2019
Yong Liu, Yinan Zhang, Qiong Wu, Chunyan Miao, Lizhen Cui, Binqiang Zhao, Yin Zhao, Lu Guan

Interactive recommendation that models the explicit interactions between users and the recommender system has attracted a lot of research attentions in recent years. Most previous interactive recommendation systems only focus on optimizing recommendation accuracy while overlooking other important aspects of recommendation quality, such as the diversity of recommendation results. In this paper, we propose a novel recommendation model, named \underline{D}iversity-promoting \underline{D}eep \underline{R}einforcement \underline{L}earning (D$^2$RL), which encourages the diversity of recommendation results in interaction recommendations. More specifically, we adopt a Determinantal Point Process (DPP) model to generate diverse, while relevant item recommendations. A personalized DPP kernel matrix is maintained for each user, which is constructed from two parts: a fixed similarity matrix capturing item-item similarity, and the relevance of items dynamically learnt through an actor-critic reinforcement learning framework. We performed extensive offline experiments as well as simulated online experiments with real world datasets to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.


Personalized News Recommendation: A Survey

Jul 08, 2021
Chuhan Wu, Fangzhao Wu, Yongfeng Huang, Xing Xie

Personalized news recommendation is an important technique to help users find their interested news information and alleviate their information overload. It has been extensively studied over decades and has achieved notable success in improving users' news reading experience. However, there are still many unsolved problems and challenges that need to be further studied. To help researchers master the advances in personalized news recommendation over the past years, in this paper we present a comprehensive overview of personalized news recommendation. Instead of following the conventional taxonomy of news recommendation methods, in this paper we propose a novel perspective to understand personalized news recommendation based on its core problems and the associated techniques and challenges. We first review the techniques for tackling each core problem in a personalized news recommender system and the challenges they face. Next, we introduce the public datasets and evaluation methods for personalized news recommendation. We then discuss the key points on improving the responsibility of personalized news recommender systems. Finally, we raise several research directions that are worth investigating in the future. This paper can provide up-to-date and comprehensive views to help readers understand the personalized news recommendation field. We hope this paper can facilitate research on personalized news recommendation and as well as related fields in natural language processing and data mining.