With the ever-increasing popularity of pretrained Video-Language Models (VidLMs), there is a pressing need to develop robust evaluation methodologies that delve deeper into their visio-linguistic capabilities. To address this challenge, we present ViLMA (Video Language Model Assessment), a task-agnostic benchmark that places the assessment of fine-grained capabilities of these models on a firm footing. Task-based evaluations, while valuable, fail to capture the complexities and specific temporal aspects of moving images that VidLMs need to process. Through carefully curated counterfactuals, ViLMA offers a controlled evaluation suite that sheds light on the true potential of these models, as well as their performance gaps compared to human-level understanding. ViLMA also includes proficiency tests, which assess basic capabilities deemed essential to solving the main counterfactual tests. We show that current VidLMs' grounding abilities are no better than those of vision-language models which use static images. This is especially striking once the performance on proficiency tests is factored in. Our benchmark serves as a catalyst for future research on VidLMs, helping to highlight areas that still need to be explored.
Despite the massive success of fine-tuning large Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) on a wide range of Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks, they remain susceptible to out-of-distribution (OOD) and adversarial inputs. Data map (DM) is a simple yet effective dual-model approach that enhances the robustness of fine-tuned PLMs, which involves fine-tuning a model on the original training set (i.e. reference model), selecting a specified fraction of important training examples according to the training dynamics of the reference model, and fine-tuning the same model on these selected examples (i.e. main model). However, it suffers from the drawback of requiring fine-tuning the same model twice, which is computationally expensive for large models. In this paper, we first show that 1) training dynamics are highly transferable across different model sizes and different pre-training methods, and that 2) main models fine-tuned using DM learn faster than when using conventional Empirical Risk Minimization (ERM). Building on these observations, we propose a novel fine-tuning approach based on the DM method: Fine-Tuning by transFerring Training dynamics (FTFT). Compared with DM, FTFT uses more efficient reference models and then fine-tunes more capable main models for fewer steps. Our experiments show that FTFT achieves better generalization robustness than ERM while spending less than half of the training cost.
Derivationally related words, such as "runner" and "running", exhibit semantic differences which also elicit different visual scenarios. In this paper, we ask whether Vision and Language (V\&L) models capture such distinctions at the morphological level, using a a new methodology and dataset. We compare the results from V\&L models to human judgements and find that models' predictions differ from those of human participants, in particular displaying a grammatical bias. We further investigate whether the human-model misalignment is related to model architecture. Our methodology, developed on one specific morphological contrast, can be further extended for testing models on capturing other nuanced language features.
In this study, we analyze data-scarce classification scenarios, where available labeled legal data is small and imbalanced, potentially hurting the quality of the results. We focused on two finetuning objectives; SetFit (Sentence Transformer Finetuning), a contrastive learning setup, and a vanilla finetuning setup on a legal provision classification task. Additionally, we compare the features that are extracted with LIME (Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations) to see which particular features contributed to the model's classification decisions. The results show that a contrastive setup with SetFit performed better than vanilla finetuning while using a fraction of the training samples. LIME results show that the contrastive learning approach helps boost both positive and negative features which are legally informative and contribute to the classification results. Thus a model finetuned with a contrastive objective seems to base its decisions more confidently on legally informative features.
When applied to Image-to-text models, interpretability methods often provide token-by-token explanations namely, they compute a visual explanation for each token of the generated sequence. Those explanations are expensive to compute and unable to comprehensively explain the model's output. Therefore, these models often require some sort of approximation that eventually leads to misleading explanations. We develop a framework based on SHAP, that allows for generating comprehensive, meaningful explanations leveraging the meaning representation of the output sequence as a whole. Moreover, by exploiting semantic priors in the visual backbone, we extract an arbitrary number of features that allows the efficient computation of Shapley values on large-scale models, generating at the same time highly meaningful visual explanations. We demonstrate that our method generates semantically more expressive explanations than traditional methods at a lower compute cost and that it can be generalized over other explainability methods.
We report our efforts in identifying a set of previous human evaluations in NLP that would be suitable for a coordinated study examining what makes human evaluations in NLP more/less reproducible. We present our results and findings, which include that just 13\% of papers had (i) sufficiently low barriers to reproduction, and (ii) enough obtainable information, to be considered for reproduction, and that all but one of the experiments we selected for reproduction was discovered to have flaws that made the meaningfulness of conducting a reproduction questionable. As a result, we had to change our coordinated study design from a reproduce approach to a standardise-then-reproduce-twice approach. Our overall (negative) finding that the great majority of human evaluations in NLP is not repeatable and/or not reproducible and/or too flawed to justify reproduction, paints a dire picture, but presents an opportunity for a rethink about how to design and report human evaluations in NLP.
Current captioning datasets, focus on object-centric captions, describing the visible objects in the image, often ending up stating the obvious (for humans), e.g. "people eating food in a park". Although these datasets are useful to evaluate the ability of Vision & Language models to recognize the visual content, they lack in expressing trivial abstract concepts, e.g. "people having a picnic". Such concepts are licensed by human's personal experience and contribute to forming common sense assumptions. We present the High-Level Dataset; a dataset extending 14997 images of the COCO dataset with 134973 human-annotated (high-level) abstract captions collected along three axes: scenes, actions and rationales. We describe and release such dataset and we show how it can be used to assess models' multimodal grounding of abstract concepts and enrich models' visio-lingusitic representations. Moreover, we describe potential tasks enabled by this dataset involving high- and low-level concepts interactions.
Image captioning models tend to describe images in an object-centric way, emphasising visible objects. But image descriptions can also abstract away from objects and describe the type of scene depicted. In this paper, we explore the potential of a state-of-the-art Vision and Language model, VinVL, to caption images at the scene level using (1) a novel dataset which pairs images with both object-centric and scene descriptions. Through (2) an in-depth analysis of the effect of the fine-tuning, we show (3) that a small amount of curated data suffices to generate scene descriptions without losing the capability to identify object-level concepts in the scene; the model acquires a more holistic view of the image compared to when object-centric descriptions are generated. We discuss the parallels between these results and insights from computational and cognitive science research on scene perception.
Multilingual language models such as mBERT have seen impressive cross-lingual transfer to a variety of languages, but many languages remain excluded from these models. In this paper, we analyse the effect of pre-training with monolingual data for a low-resource language that is not included in mBERT -- Maltese -- with a range of pre-training set ups. We conduct evaluations with the newly pre-trained models on three morphosyntactic tasks -- dependency parsing, part-of-speech tagging, and named-entity recognition -- and one semantic classification task -- sentiment analysis. We also present a newly created corpus for Maltese, and determine the effect that the pre-training data size and domain have on the downstream performance. Our results show that using a mixture of pre-training domains is often superior to using Wikipedia text only. We also find that a fraction of this corpus is enough to make significant leaps in performance over Wikipedia-trained models. We pre-train and compare two models on the new corpus: a monolingual BERT model trained from scratch (BERTu), and a further pre-trained multilingual BERT (mBERTu). The models achieve state-of-the-art performance on these tasks, despite the new corpus being considerably smaller than typically used corpora for high-resourced languages. On average, BERTu outperforms or performs competitively with mBERTu, and the largest gains are observed for higher-level tasks.
Current image description generation models do not transfer well to the task of describing human faces. To encourage the development of more human-focused descriptions, we developed a new data set of facial descriptions based on the CelebA image data set. We describe the properties of this data set, and present results from a face description generator trained on it, which explores the feasibility of using transfer learning from VGGFace/ResNet CNNs. Comparisons are drawn through both automated metrics and human evaluation by 76 English-speaking participants. The descriptions generated by the VGGFace-LSTM + Attention model are closest to the ground truth according to human evaluation whilst the ResNet-LSTM + Attention model obtained the highest CIDEr and CIDEr-D results (1.252 and 0.686 respectively). Together, the new data set and these experimental results provide data and baselines for future work in this area.