Hyperspectral images provide detailed spectral information through hundreds of (narrow) spectral channels (also known as dimensionality or bands) with continuous spectral information that can accurately classify diverse materials of interest. The increased dimensionality of such data makes it possible to significantly improve data information content but provides a challenge to the conventional techniques (the so-called curse of dimensionality) for accurate analysis of hyperspectral images. Feature extraction, as a vibrant field of research in the hyperspectral community, evolved through decades of research to address this issue and extract informative features suitable for data representation and classification. The advances in feature extraction have been inspired by two fields of research, including the popularization of image and signal processing as well as machine (deep) learning, leading to two types of feature extraction approaches named shallow and deep techniques. This article outlines the advances in feature extraction approaches for hyperspectral imagery by providing a technical overview of the state-of-the-art techniques, providing useful entry points for researchers at different levels, including students, researchers, and senior researchers, willing to explore novel investigations on this challenging topic. In more detail, this paper provides a bird's eye view over shallow (both supervised and unsupervised) and deep feature extraction approaches specifically dedicated to the topic of hyperspectral feature extraction and its application on hyperspectral image classification. Additionally, this paper compares 15 advanced techniques with an emphasis on their methodological foundations in terms of classification accuracies. Furthermore, the codes and libraries are shared at https://github.com/BehnoodRasti/HyFTech-Hyperspectral-Shallow-Deep-Feature-Extraction-Toolbox.
With the rapid development of Internet technology, people have more and more access to a variety of web page resources. At the same time, the current rapid development of deep learning technology is often inseparable from the huge amount of Web data resources. On the other hand, NLP is also an important part of data processing technology, such as web page data extraction. At present, the extraction technology of web page text mainly uses a single heuristic function or strategy, and most of them need to determine the threshold manually. With the rapid growth of the number and types of web resources, there are still problems to be solved when using a single strategy to extract the text information of different pages. This paper proposes a web page text extraction algorithm based on multi-feature fusion. According to the text information characteristics of web resources, DOM nodes are used as the extraction unit to design multiple statistical features, and high-order features are designed according to heuristic strategies. This method establishes a small neural network, takes multiple features of DOM nodes as input, predicts whether the nodes contain text information, makes full use of different statistical information and extraction strategies, and adapts to more types of pages. Experimental results show that this method has a good ability of web page text extraction and avoids the problem of manually determining the threshold.
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) specialize in feature extraction rather than function mapping. In doing so they form complex internal hierarchical feature representations, the complexity of which gradually increases with a corresponding increment in neural network depth. In this paper, we examine the feature extraction capabilities of CNNs using Maximum Entropy (ME) and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) to validate the idea that, CNN models should be tailored for a given task and complexity of the input data. SNR and ME measures are used as they can accurately determine in the input dataset, the relative amount of signal information to the random noise and the maximum amount of information respectively. We use two well known benchmarking datasets, MNIST and CIFAR-10 to examine the information extraction and abstraction capabilities of CNNs. Through our experiments, we examine convolutional feature extraction and abstraction capabilities in CNNs and show that the classification accuracy or performance of CNNs is greatly dependent on the amount, complexity and quality of the signal information present in the input data. Furthermore, we show the effect of information overflow and underflow on CNN classification accuracies. Our hypothesis is that the feature extraction and abstraction capabilities of convolutional layers are limited and therefore, CNN models should be tailored to the input data by using appropriately sized CNNs based on the SNR and ME measures of the input dataset.
The inclusion of spatial information into spectral classifiers for fine-resolution hyperspectral imagery has led to significant improvements in terms of classification performance. The task of spectral-spatial hyperspectral image classification has remained challenging because of high intraclass spectrum variability and low interclass spectral variability. This fact has made the extraction of spatial information highly active. In this work, a novel hyperspectral image classification framework using the fusion of dual spatial information is proposed, in which the dual spatial information is built by both exploiting pre-processing feature extraction and post-processing spatial optimization. In the feature extraction stage, an adaptive texture smoothing method is proposed to construct the structural profile (SP), which makes it possible to precisely extract discriminative features from hyperspectral images. The SP extraction method is used here for the first time in the remote sensing community. Then, the extracted SP is fed into a spectral classifier. In the spatial optimization stage, a pixel-level classifier is used to obtain the class probability followed by an extended random walker-based spatial optimization technique. Finally, a decision fusion rule is utilized to fuse the class probabilities obtained by the two different stages. Experiments performed on three data sets from different scenes illustrate that the proposed method can outperform other state-of-the-art classification techniques. In addition, the proposed feature extraction method, i.e., SP, can effectively improve the discrimination between different land covers.
We introduce a general framework for several information extraction tasks that share span representations using dynamically constructed span graphs. The graphs are constructed by selecting the most confident entity spans and linking these nodes with confidence-weighted relation types and coreferences. The dynamic span graph allows coreference and relation type confidences to propagate through the graph to iteratively refine the span representations. This is unlike previous multi-task frameworks for information extraction in which the only interaction between tasks is in the shared first-layer LSTM. Our framework significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art on multiple information extraction tasks across multiple datasets reflecting different domains. We further observe that the span enumeration approach is good at detecting nested span entities, with significant F1 score improvement on the ACE dataset.
In this paper, we describe the Lithium Natural Language Processing (NLP) system - a resource-constrained, high- throughput and language-agnostic system for information extraction from noisy user generated text on social media. Lithium NLP extracts a rich set of information including entities, topics, hashtags and sentiment from text. We discuss several real world applications of the system currently incorporated in Lithium products. We also compare our system with existing commercial and academic NLP systems in terms of performance, information extracted and languages supported. We show that Lithium NLP is at par with and in some cases, outperforms state- of-the-art commercial NLP systems.
Recent efforts for information extraction have relied on many deep neural models. However, any such models can easily overfit noisy labels and suffer from performance degradation. While it is very costly to filter noisy labels in large learning resources, recent studies show that such labels take more training steps to be memorized and are more frequently forgotten than clean labels, therefore are identifiable in training. Motivated by such properties, we propose a simple co-regularization framework for entity-centric information extraction, which consists of several neural models with different parameter initialization. These models are jointly optimized with task-specific loss, and are regularized to generate similar predictions based on an agreement loss, which prevents overfitting on noisy labels. In the end, we can take any of the trained models for inference. Extensive experiments on two widely used but noisy benchmarks for information extraction, TACRED and CoNLL03, demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework.
Information Extraction from visual documents enables convenient and intelligent assistance to end users. We present a Neighborhood-based Information Extraction (NIE) approach that uses contextual language models and pays attention to the local neighborhood context in the visual documents to improve information extraction accuracy. We collect two different visual document datasets and show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art global context-based IE technique. In fact, NIE outperforms existing approaches in both small and large model sizes. Our on-device implementation of NIE on a mobile platform that generally requires small models showcases NIE's usefulness in practical real-world applications.
For IoT to reach its full potential, the sharing and reuse of information in different applications and across verticals is of paramount importance. However, there are a plethora of IoT platforms using different representations, protocols and interaction patterns. To address this issue, the Fed4IoT project has developed an IoT virtualization platform that, on the one hand, integrates information from many different source platforms and, on the other hand, makes the information required by the respective users available in the target platform of choice. To enable this, information is translated into a common, neutral exchange format. The format of choice is NGSI-LD, which is being standardized by the ETSI Industry Specification Group on Context Information Management (ETSI ISG CIM). Thing Visors are the components that translate the source information to NGSI-LD, which is then delivered to the target platform and translated into the target format. ThingVisors can be implemented by hand, but this requires significant human effort, especially considering the heterogeneity of low level information produced by a multitude of sensors. Thus, supporting the human developer and, ideally, fully automating the process of extracting and enriching data and translating it to NGSI-LD is a crucial step. Machine learning is a promising approach for this, but it typically requires large amounts of hand-labelled data for training, an effort that makes it unrealistic in many IoT scenarios. A programmatic labelling approach called knowledge infusion that encodes expert knowledge is used for matching a schema or ontology extracted from the data with a target schema or ontology, providing the basis for annotating the data and facilitating the translation to NGSI-LD.