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"Image To Image Translation": models, code, and papers

Semantic Example Guided Image-to-Image Translation

Sep 28, 2019
Jialu Huang, Jing Liao, Tak Wu Sam Kwong

Many image-to-image (I2I) translation problems are in nature of high diversity that a single input may have various counterparts. Prior works proposed the multi-modal network that can build a many-to-many mapping between two visual domains. However, most of them are guided by sampled noises. Some others encode the reference images into a latent vector, by which the semantic information of the reference image will be washed away. In this work, we aim to provide a solution to control the output based on references semantically. Given a reference image and an input in another domain, a semantic matching is first performed between the two visual contents and generates the auxiliary image, which is explicitly encouraged to preserve semantic characteristics of the reference. A deep network then is used for I2I translation and the final outputs are expected to be semantically similar to both the input and the reference; however, no such paired data can satisfy that dual-similarity in a supervised fashion, so we build up a self-supervised framework to serve the training purpose. We improve the quality and diversity of the outputs by employing non-local blocks and a multi-task architecture. We assess the proposed method through extensive qualitative and quantitative evaluations and also presented comparisons with several state-of-art models.

* 2019 IEEE.Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works 
  

Improved Part Segmentation Performance by Optimising Realism of Synthetic Images using Cycle Generative Adversarial Networks

Mar 16, 2018
Ruud Barth, Jochen Hemming, Eldert J. van Henten

In this paper we report on improved part segmentation performance using convolutional neural networks to reduce the dependency on the large amount of manually annotated empirical images. This was achieved by optimising the visual realism of synthetic agricultural images.In Part I, a cycle consistent generative adversarial network was applied to synthetic and empirical images with the objective to generate more realistic synthetic images by translating them to the empirical domain. We first hypothesise and confirm that plant part image features such as color and texture become more similar to the empirical domain after translation of the synthetic images.Results confirm this with an improved mean color distribution correlation with the empirical data prior of 0.62 and post translation of 0.90. Furthermore, the mean image features of contrast, homogeneity, energy and entropy moved closer to the empirical mean, post translation. In Part II, 7 experiments were performed using convolutional neural networks with different combinations of synthetic, synthetic translated to empirical and empirical images. We hypothesised that the translated images can be used for (i) improved learning of empirical images, and (ii) that learning without any fine-tuning with empirical images is improved by bootstrapping with translated images over bootstrapping with synthetic images. Results confirm our second and third hypotheses. First a maximum intersection-over-union performance was achieved of 0.52 when bootstrapping with translated images and fine-tuning with empirical images; an 8% increase compared to only using synthetic images. Second, training without any empirical fine-tuning resulted in an average IOU of 0.31; a 55% performance increase over previous methods that only used synthetic images.

  

From Words to Sentences: A Progressive Learning Approach for Zero-resource Machine Translation with Visual Pivots

Jun 03, 2019
Shizhe Chen, Qin Jin, Jianlong Fu

The neural machine translation model has suffered from the lack of large-scale parallel corpora. In contrast, we humans can learn multi-lingual translations even without parallel texts by referring our languages to the external world. To mimic such human learning behavior, we employ images as pivots to enable zero-resource translation learning. However, a picture tells a thousand words, which makes multi-lingual sentences pivoted by the same image noisy as mutual translations and thus hinders the translation model learning. In this work, we propose a progressive learning approach for image-pivoted zero-resource machine translation. Since words are less diverse when grounded in the image, we first learn word-level translation with image pivots, and then progress to learn the sentence-level translation by utilizing the learned word translation to suppress noises in image-pivoted multi-lingual sentences. Experimental results on two widely used image-pivot translation datasets, IAPR-TC12 and Multi30k, show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art methods.

* Accepted by IJCAI 2019 
  

Stochastic Actor-Executor-Critic for Image-to-Image Translation

Dec 14, 2021
Ziwei Luo, Jing Hu, Xin Wang, Siwei Lyu, Bin Kong, Youbing Yin, Qi Song, Xi Wu

Training a model-free deep reinforcement learning model to solve image-to-image translation is difficult since it involves high-dimensional continuous state and action spaces. In this paper, we draw inspiration from the recent success of the maximum entropy reinforcement learning framework designed for challenging continuous control problems to develop stochastic policies over high dimensional continuous spaces including image representation, generation, and control simultaneously. Central to this method is the Stochastic Actor-Executor-Critic (SAEC) which is an off-policy actor-critic model with an additional executor to generate realistic images. Specifically, the actor focuses on the high-level representation and control policy by a stochastic latent action, as well as explicitly directs the executor to generate low-level actions to manipulate the state. Experiments on several image-to-image translation tasks have demonstrated the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed SAEC when facing high-dimensional continuous space problems.

* IJCAI 2021 
  

Disrupting Deepfakes: Adversarial Attacks Against Conditional Image Translation Networks and Facial Manipulation Systems

Mar 06, 2020
Nataniel Ruiz, Sarah Adel Bargal, Stan Sclaroff

Face modification systems using deep learning have become increasingly powerful and accessible. Given images of a person's face, such systems can generate new images of that same person under different expressions and poses. Some systems can also modify targeted attributes such as hair color or age. This type of manipulated images and video have been coined Deepfakes. In order to prevent a malicious user from generating modified images of a person without their consent we tackle the new problem of generating adversarial attacks against such image translation systems, which disrupt the resulting output image. We call this problem disrupting deepfakes. Most image translation architectures are generative models conditioned on an attribute (e.g. put a smile on this person's face). We are first to propose and successfully apply (1) class transferable adversarial attacks that generalize to different classes, which means that the attacker does not need to have knowledge about the conditioning class, and (2) adversarial training for generative adversarial networks (GANs) as a first step towards robust image translation networks. Finally, in gray-box scenarios, blurring can mount a successful defense against disruption. We present a spread-spectrum adversarial attack, which evades blur defenses.

  

An empirical study on the effectiveness of images in Multimodal Neural Machine Translation

Jul 04, 2017
Jean-Benoit Delbrouck, Stéphane Dupont

In state-of-the-art Neural Machine Translation (NMT), an attention mechanism is used during decoding to enhance the translation. At every step, the decoder uses this mechanism to focus on different parts of the source sentence to gather the most useful information before outputting its target word. Recently, the effectiveness of the attention mechanism has also been explored for multimodal tasks, where it becomes possible to focus both on sentence parts and image regions that they describe. In this paper, we compare several attention mechanism on the multimodal translation task (English, image to German) and evaluate the ability of the model to make use of images to improve translation. We surpass state-of-the-art scores on the Multi30k data set, we nevertheless identify and report different misbehavior of the machine while translating.

* Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing 
* Accepted to EMNLP 2017 
  

Scaling-up Disentanglement for Image Translation

Mar 25, 2021
Aviv Gabbay, Yedid Hoshen

Image translation methods typically aim to manipulate a set of labeled attributes (given as supervision at training time e.g. domain label) while leaving the unlabeled attributes intact. Current methods achieve either: (i) disentanglement, which exhibits low visual fidelity and can only be satisfied where the attributes are perfectly uncorrelated. (ii) visually-plausible translations, which are clearly not disentangled. In this work, we propose OverLORD, a single framework for disentangling labeled and unlabeled attributes as well as synthesizing high-fidelity images, which is composed of two stages; (i) Disentanglement: Learning disentangled representations with latent optimization. Differently from previous approaches, we do not rely on adversarial training or any architectural biases. (ii) Synthesis: Training feed-forward encoders for inferring the learned attributes and tuning the generator in an adversarial manner to increase the perceptual quality. When the labeled and unlabeled attributes are correlated, we model an additional representation that accounts for the correlated attributes and improves disentanglement. We highlight that our flexible framework covers multiple image translation settings e.g. attribute manipulation, pose-appearance translation, segmentation-guided synthesis and shape-texture transfer. In an extensive evaluation, we present significantly better disentanglement with higher translation quality and greater output diversity than state-of-the-art methods.

* Project page: http://www.vision.huji.ac.il/overlord 
  

HyperCon: Image-To-Video Model Transfer for Video-To-Video Translation Tasks

Dec 10, 2019
Ryan Szeto, Mostafa El-Khamy, Jungwon Lee, Jason J. Corso

Video-to-video translation for super-resolution, inpainting, style transfer, etc. is more difficult than corresponding image-to-image translation tasks due to the temporal consistency problem that, if left unaddressed, results in distracting flickering effects. Although video models designed from scratch produce temporally consistent results, training them to match the vast visual knowledge captured by image models requires an intractable number of videos. To combine the benefits of image and video models, we propose an image-to-video model transfer method called Hyperconsistency (HyperCon) that transforms any well-trained image model into a temporally consistent video model without fine-tuning. HyperCon works by translating a synthetic temporally interpolated video frame-wise and then aggregating over temporally localized windows on the interpolated video. It handles both masked and unmasked inputs, enabling support for even more video-to-video tasks than prior image-to-video model transfer techniques. We demonstrate HyperCon on video style transfer and inpainting, where it performs favorably compared to prior state-of-the-art video consistency and video inpainting methods, all without training on a single stylized or incomplete video.

  

Unpaired Image-to-Image Translation using Cycle-Consistent Adversarial Networks

Aug 30, 2018
Jun-Yan Zhu, Taesung Park, Phillip Isola, Alexei A. Efros

Image-to-image translation is a class of vision and graphics problems where the goal is to learn the mapping between an input image and an output image using a training set of aligned image pairs. However, for many tasks, paired training data will not be available. We present an approach for learning to translate an image from a source domain $X$ to a target domain $Y$ in the absence of paired examples. Our goal is to learn a mapping $G: X \rightarrow Y$ such that the distribution of images from $G(X)$ is indistinguishable from the distribution $Y$ using an adversarial loss. Because this mapping is highly under-constrained, we couple it with an inverse mapping $F: Y \rightarrow X$ and introduce a cycle consistency loss to push $F(G(X)) \approx X$ (and vice versa). Qualitative results are presented on several tasks where paired training data does not exist, including collection style transfer, object transfiguration, season transfer, photo enhancement, etc. Quantitative comparisons against several prior methods demonstrate the superiority of our approach.

* An extended version of our ICCV 2017 paper, v5 (1) adds the link to CycleGAN PyTorch code and (2) fixes typos and formatting issues. 
  

Towards Learning a Self-inverse Network for Bidirectional Image-to-image Translation

Sep 16, 2019
Zengming Shen, Yifan Chen, S. Kevin Zhou, Bogdan Georgescu, Xuqi Liu, Thomas S. Huang

The one-to-one mapping is necessary for many bidirectional image-to-image translation applications, such as MRI image synthesis as MRI images are unique to the patient. State-of-the-art approaches for image synthesis from domain X to domain Y learn a convolutional neural network that meticulously maps between the domains. A different network is typically implemented to map along the opposite direction, from Y to X. In this paper, we explore the possibility of only wielding one network for bi-directional image synthesis. In other words, such an autonomous learning network implements a self-inverse function. A self-inverse network shares several distinct advantages: only one network instead of two, better generalization and more restricted parameter space. Most importantly, a self-inverse function guarantees a one-to-one mapping, a property that cannot be guaranteed by earlier approaches that are not self-inverse. The experiments on three datasets show that, compared with the baseline approaches that use two separate models for the image synthesis along two directions, our self-inverse network achieves better synthesis results in terms of standard metrics. Finally, our sensitivity analysis confirms the feasibility of learning a self-inverse function for the bidirectional image translation.

* 10 pages, 9 figures 
  
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