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"Image To Image Translation": models, code, and papers

Analogical Image Translation for Fog Generation

Jun 28, 2020
Rui Gong, Dengxin Dai, Yuhua Chen, Wen Li, Luc Van Gool

Image-to-image translation is to map images from a given \emph{style} to another given \emph{style}. While exceptionally successful, current methods assume the availability of training images in both source and target domains, which does not always hold in practice. Inspired by humans' reasoning capability of analogy, we propose analogical image translation (AIT). Given images of two styles in the source domain: $\mathcal{A}$ and $\mathcal{A}^\prime$, along with images $\mathcal{B}$ of the first style in the target domain, learn a model to translate $\mathcal{B}$ to $\mathcal{B}^\prime$ in the target domain, such that $\mathcal{A}:\mathcal{A}^\prime ::\mathcal{B}:\mathcal{B}^\prime$. AIT is especially useful for translation scenarios in which training data of one style is hard to obtain but training data of the same two styles in another domain is available. For instance, in the case from normal conditions to extreme, rare conditions, obtaining real training images for the latter case is challenging but obtaining synthetic data for both cases is relatively easy. In this work, we are interested in adding adverse weather effects, more specifically fog effects, to images taken in clear weather. To circumvent the challenge of collecting real foggy images, AIT learns with synthetic clear-weather images, synthetic foggy images and real clear-weather images to add fog effects onto real clear-weather images without seeing any real foggy images during training. AIT achieves this zero-shot image translation capability by coupling a supervised training scheme in the synthetic domain, a cycle consistency strategy in the real domain, an adversarial training scheme between the two domains, and a novel network design. Experiments show the effectiveness of our method for zero-short image translation and its benefit for downstream tasks such as semantic foggy scene understanding.

* 18 pages, 9 figures, 7 tables 
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Extremely Weak Supervised Image-to-Image Translation for Semantic Segmentation

Sep 18, 2019
Samarth Shukla, Luc Van Gool, Radu Timofte

Recent advances in generative models and adversarial training have led to a flourishing image-to-image (I2I) translation literature. The current I2I translation approaches require training images from the two domains that are either all paired (supervised) or all unpaired (unsupervised). In practice, obtaining paired training data in sufficient quantities is often very costly and cumbersome. Therefore solutions that employ unpaired data, while less accurate, are largely preferred. In this paper, we aim to bridge the gap between supervised and unsupervised I2I translation, with application to semantic image segmentation. We build upon pix2pix and CycleGAN, state-of-the-art seminal I2I translation techniques. We propose a method to select (very few) paired training samples and achieve significant improvements in both supervised and unsupervised I2I translation settings over random selection. Further, we boost the performance by incorporating both (selected) paired and unpaired samples in the training process. Our experiments show that an extremely weak supervised I2I translation solution using only one paired training sample can achieve a quantitative performance much better than the unsupervised CycleGAN model, and comparable to that of the supervised pix2pix model trained on thousands of pairs.

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Unsupervised Medical Image Translation Using Cycle-MedGAN

Mar 08, 2019
Karim Armanious, Chenming Jiang, Sherif Abdulatif, Thomas Küstner, Sergios Gatidis, Bin Yang

Image-to-image translation is a new field in computer vision with multiple potential applications in the medical domain. However, for supervised image translation frameworks, co-registered datasets, paired in a pixel-wise sense, are required. This is often difficult to acquire in realistic medical scenarios. On the other hand, unsupervised translation frameworks often result in blurred translated images with unrealistic details. In this work, we propose a new unsupervised translation framework which is titled Cycle-MedGAN. The proposed framework utilizes new non-adversarial cycle losses which direct the framework to minimize the textural and perceptual discrepancies in the translated images. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons against other unsupervised translation approaches demonstrate the performance of the proposed framework for PET-CT translation and MR motion correction.

* Submitted to EUSIPCO 2019, 5 pages 
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MISO: Mutual Information Loss with Stochastic Style Representations for Multimodal Image-to-Image Translation

Feb 11, 2019
Sanghyeon Na, Seungjoo Yoo, Jaegul Choo

Unpaired multimodal image-to-image translation is a task of translating a given image in a source domain into diverse images in the target domain, overcoming the limitation of one-to-one mapping. Existing multimodal translation models are mainly based on the disentangled representations with an image reconstruction loss. We propose two approaches to improve multimodal translation quality. First, we use a content representation from the source domain conditioned on a style representation from the target domain. Second, rather than using a typical image reconstruction loss, we design MILO (Mutual Information LOss), a new stochastically-defined loss function based on information theory. This loss function directly reflects the interpretation of latent variables as a random variable. We show that our proposed model Mutual Information with StOchastic Style Representation(MISO) achieves state-of-the-art performance through extensive experiments on various real-world datasets.

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InstaFormer: Instance-Aware Image-to-Image Translation with Transformer

Mar 30, 2022
Soohyun Kim, Jongbeom Baek, Jihye Park, Gyeongnyeon Kim, Seungryong Kim

We present a novel Transformer-based network architecture for instance-aware image-to-image translation, dubbed InstaFormer, to effectively integrate global- and instance-level information. By considering extracted content features from an image as tokens, our networks discover global consensus of content features by considering context information through a self-attention module in Transformers. By augmenting such tokens with an instance-level feature extracted from the content feature with respect to bounding box information, our framework is capable of learning an interaction between object instances and the global image, thus boosting the instance-awareness. We replace layer normalization (LayerNorm) in standard Transformers with adaptive instance normalization (AdaIN) to enable a multi-modal translation with style codes. In addition, to improve the instance-awareness and translation quality at object regions, we present an instance-level content contrastive loss defined between input and translated image. We conduct experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of our InstaFormer over the latest methods and provide extensive ablation studies.

* Accepted to CVPR 2022 
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Semantics-Aware Image to Image Translation and Domain Transfer

Apr 03, 2019
Pravakar Roy, Nicolai Häni, Volkan Isler

Image to image translation is the problem of transferring an image from a source domain to a target domain. We present a new method to transfer the underlying semantics of an image even when there are geometric changes across the two domains. Specifically, we present a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) that can transfer semantic information presented as segmentation masks. Our main technical contribution is an encoder-decoder based generator architecture that jointly encodes the image and its underlying semantics and translates both simultaneously to the target domain. Additionally, we propose object transfiguration and cross-domain semantic consistency losses that preserve the underlying semantic labels maps. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in multiple object transfiguration and domain transfer tasks through qualitative and quantitative experiments. The results show that our method is better at transferring image semantics than state of the art image to image translation methods.

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Difficulty Translation in Histopathology Images

Apr 27, 2020
Jerry Wei, Arief Suriawinata, Xiaoying Liu, Bing Ren, Mustafa Nasir-Moin, Naofumi Tomita, Jason Wei, Saeed Hassanpour

The unique nature of histopathology images opens the door to domain-specific formulations of image translation models. We propose a difficulty translation model that modifies colorectal histopathology images to become more challenging to classify. Our model comprises a scorer, which provides an output confidence to measure the difficulty of images, and an image translator, which learns to translate images from easy-to-classify to hard-to-classify using a training set defined by the scorer. We present three findings. First, generated images were indeed harder to classify for both human pathologists and machine learning classifiers than their corresponding source images. Second, image classifiers trained with generated images as augmented data performed better on both easy and hard images from an independent test set. Finally, human annotator agreement and our model's measure of difficulty correlated strongly, implying that for future work requiring human annotator agreement, the confidence score of a machine learning classifier could be used instead as a proxy.

* Submitted to 2020 Artificial Intelligence in Medicine (AIME) conference 
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Unsupervised Image-to-Image Translation via Pre-trained StyleGAN2 Network

Oct 27, 2020
Jialu Huang, Jing Liao, Sam Kwong

Image-to-Image (I2I) translation is a heated topic in academia, and it also has been applied in real-world industry for tasks like image synthesis, super-resolution, and colorization. However, traditional I2I translation methods train data in two or more domains together. This requires lots of computation resources. Moreover, the results are of lower quality, and they contain many more artifacts. The training process could be unstable when the data in different domains are not balanced, and modal collapse is more likely to happen. We proposed a new I2I translation method that generates a new model in the target domain via a series of model transformations on a pre-trained StyleGAN2 model in the source domain. After that, we proposed an inversion method to achieve the conversion between an image and its latent vector. By feeding the latent vector into the generated model, we can perform I2I translation between the source domain and target domain. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations were conducted to prove that the proposed method can achieve outstanding performance in terms of image quality, diversity and semantic similarity to the input and reference images compared to state-of-the-art works.

* 2020 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works 
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SMIT: Stochastic Multi-Label Image-to-Image Translation

Dec 10, 2018
Andrés Romero, Pablo Arbeláez, Luc Van Gool, Radu Timofte

Cross-domain mapping has been a very active topic in recent years. Given one image, its main purpose is to translate it to the desired target domain, or multiple domains in the case of multiple labels. This problem is highly challenging due to three main reasons: (i) unpaired datasets, (ii) multiple attributes, and (iii) the multimodality associated with the translation. Most of the existing state-of-the-art has focused only on two reasons, i.e. producing disentangled representations from unpaired datasets in a one-to-one domain translation or producing multiple unimodal attributes from unpaired datasets. In this work, we propose a joint framework of diversity and multi-mapping image-to-image translations, using a single generator to conditionally produce countless and unique fake images that hold the underlying characteristics of the source image. Extensive experiments over different datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach with comparisons to the state-of-the-art in both multi-label and multimodal problems. Additionally, our method is able to generalize under different scenarios: continuous style interpolation, continuous label interpolation, and multi-label mapping.

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