Optimizing the configuration and placement of sensors is crucial for reliable fall detection, indoor localization, and activity recognition in assisted living spaces. We propose a novel, sample-efficient approach to find a high-quality sensor placement in an arbitrary indoor space based on grey-box Bayesian optimization and simulation-based evaluation. Our key technical contribution lies in capturing domain-specific knowledge about the spatial distribution of activities and incorporating it into the iterative selection of query points in Bayesian optimization. Considering two simulated indoor environments and a real-world dataset containing human activities and sensor triggers, we show that our proposed method performs better compared to state-of-the-art black-box optimization techniques in identifying high-quality sensor placements, leading to accurate activity recognition in terms of F1-score, while also requiring a significantly lower (51.3% on average) number of expensive function queries.
As one of the leading causes of mortality and disability worldwide, Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) occurs when the blood supply to the brain is suddenly interrupted because of a blocked artery. Within seconds of AIS onset, the brain cells surrounding the blocked artery die, which leads to the progression of the lesion. The automated and precise prediction of the existing lesion plays a vital role in the AIS treatment planning and prevention of further injuries. The current standard AIS assessment method, which thresholds the 3D measurement maps extracted from Computed Tomography Perfusion (CTP) images, is not accurate enough. Due to this fact, in this article, we propose the imbalanced Temporal Deep Gaussian Process (iTDGP), a probabilistic model that can improve AIS lesions prediction by using baseline CTP time series. Our proposed model can effectively extract temporal information from the CTP time series and map it to the class labels of the brain's voxels. In addition, by using batch training and voxel-level analysis iTDGP can learn from a few patients and it is robust against imbalanced classes. Moreover, our model incorporates a post-processor capable of improving prediction accuracy using spatial information. Our comprehensive experiments, on the ISLES 2018 and the University of Alberta Hospital (UAH) datasets, show that iTDGP performs better than state-of-the-art AIS lesion predictors, obtaining the (cross-validation) Dice score of 71.42% and 65.37% with a significant p<0.05, respectively.
Personalized therapy, in which a therapeutic practice is adapted to an individual patient, leads to better health outcomes. Typically, this is accomplished by relying on a therapist's training and intuition along with feedback from a patient. While there exist approaches to automatically adapt therapeutic content to a patient, they rely on hand-authored, pre-defined rules, which may not generalize to all individuals. In this paper, we propose an approach to automatically adapt therapeutic content to patients based on physiological measures. We implement our approach in the context of arachnophobia exposure therapy, and rely on experience-driven procedural content generation via reinforcement learning (EDPCGRL) to generate virtual spiders to match an individual patient. In this initial implementation, and due to the ongoing pandemic, we make use of virtual or artificial humans implemented based on prior arachnophobia psychology research. Our EDPCGRL method is able to more quickly adapt to these virtual humans with high accuracy in comparison to existing, search-based EDPCG approaches.
Purpose: Echocardiography is commonly used as a non-invasive imaging tool in clinical practice for the assessment of cardiac function. However, delineation of the left ventricle is challenging due to the inherent properties of ultrasound imaging, such as the presence of speckle noise and the low signal-to-noise ratio. Methods: We propose a semi-automated segmentation algorithm for the delineation of the left ventricle in temporal 3D echocardiography sequences. The method requires minimal user interaction and relies on a diffeomorphic registration approach. Advantages of the method include no dependence on prior geometrical information, training data, or registration from an atlas. Results: The method was evaluated using three-dimensional ultrasound scan sequences from 18 patients from the Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, Edmonton, Canada, and compared to manual delineations provided by an expert cardiologist and four other registration algorithms. The segmentation approach yielded the following results over the cardiac cycle: a mean absolute difference of 1.01 (0.21) mm, a Hausdorff distance of 4.41 (1.43) mm, and a Dice overlap score of 0.93 (0.02). Conclusions: The method performed well compared to the four other registration algorithms.