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"Object Detection": models, code, and papers
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BEA: Revisiting anchor-based object detection DNN using Budding Ensemble Architecture

Sep 19, 2023
Syed Sha Qutub, Neslihan Kose, Rafael Rosales, Michael Paulitsch, Korbinian Hagn, Florian Geissler, Yang Peng, Gereon Hinz, Alois Knoll

This paper introduces the Budding Ensemble Architecture (BEA), a novel reduced ensemble architecture for anchor-based object detection models. Object detection models are crucial in vision-based tasks, particularly in autonomous systems. They should provide precise bounding box detections while also calibrating their predicted confidence scores, leading to higher-quality uncertainty estimates. However, current models may make erroneous decisions due to false positives receiving high scores or true positives being discarded due to low scores. BEA aims to address these issues. The proposed loss functions in BEA improve the confidence score calibration and lower the uncertainty error, which results in a better distinction of true and false positives and, eventually, higher accuracy of the object detection models. Both Base-YOLOv3 and SSD models were enhanced using the BEA method and its proposed loss functions. The BEA on Base-YOLOv3 trained on the KITTI dataset results in a 6% and 3.7% increase in mAP and AP50, respectively. Utilizing a well-balanced uncertainty estimation threshold to discard samples in real-time even leads to a 9.6% higher AP50 than its base model. This is attributed to a 40% increase in the area under the AP50-based retention curve used to measure the quality of calibration of confidence scores. Furthermore, BEA-YOLOV3 trained on KITTI provides superior out-of-distribution detection on Citypersons, BDD100K, and COCO datasets compared to the ensembles and vanilla models of YOLOv3 and Gaussian-YOLOv3.

* 14 pages, 5 pages supplementary material. Accepted at BMVC-2023 
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OccupancyDETR: Making Semantic Scene Completion as Straightforward as Object Detection

Sep 15, 2023
Yupeng Jia, Jie He, Runze Chen, Fang Zhao, Haiyong Luo

Visual-based 3D semantic occupancy perception (also known as 3D semantic scene completion) is a new perception paradigm for robotic applications like autonomous driving. Compared with Bird's Eye View (BEV) perception, it extends the vertical dimension, significantly enhancing the ability of robots to understand their surroundings. However, due to this very reason, the computational demand for current 3D semantic occupancy perception methods generally surpasses that of BEV perception methods and 2D perception methods. We propose a novel 3D semantic occupancy perception method, OccupancyDETR, which consists of a DETR-like object detection module and a 3D occupancy decoder module. The integration of object detection simplifies our method structurally - instead of predicting the semantics of each voxels, it identifies objects in the scene and their respective 3D occupancy grids. This speeds up our method, reduces required resources, and leverages object detection algorithm, giving our approach notable performance on small objects. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method on the SemanticKITTI dataset, showcasing an mIoU of 23 and a processing speed of 6 frames per second, thereby presenting a promising solution for real-time 3D semantic scene completion.

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Robust Backdoor Attacks on Object Detection in Real World

Sep 16, 2023
Yaguan Qian, Boyuan Ji, Shuke He, Shenhui Huang, Xiang Ling, Bin Wang, Wei Wang

Deep learning models are widely deployed in many applications, such as object detection in various security fields. However, these models are vulnerable to backdoor attacks. Most backdoor attacks were intensively studied on classified models, but little on object detection. Previous works mainly focused on the backdoor attack in the digital world, but neglect the real world. Especially, the backdoor attack's effect in the real world will be easily influenced by physical factors like distance and illumination. In this paper, we proposed a variable-size backdoor trigger to adapt to the different sizes of attacked objects, overcoming the disturbance caused by the distance between the viewing point and attacked object. In addition, we proposed a backdoor training named malicious adversarial training, enabling the backdoor object detector to learn the feature of the trigger with physical noise. The experiment results show this robust backdoor attack (RBA) could enhance the attack success rate in the real world.

* 22 pages, 13figures 
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Remote Sensing Object Detection Meets Deep Learning: A Meta-review of Challenges and Advances

Sep 13, 2023
Xiangrong Zhang, Tianyang Zhang, Guanchun Wang, Peng Zhu, Xu Tang, Xiuping Jia, Licheng Jiao

Remote sensing object detection (RSOD), one of the most fundamental and challenging tasks in the remote sensing field, has received longstanding attention. In recent years, deep learning techniques have demonstrated robust feature representation capabilities and led to a big leap in the development of RSOD techniques. In this era of rapid technical evolution, this review aims to present a comprehensive review of the recent achievements in deep learning based RSOD methods. More than 300 papers are covered in this review. We identify five main challenges in RSOD, including multi-scale object detection, rotated object detection, weak object detection, tiny object detection, and object detection with limited supervision, and systematically review the corresponding methods developed in a hierarchical division manner. We also review the widely used benchmark datasets and evaluation metrics within the field of RSOD, as well as the application scenarios for RSOD. Future research directions are provided for further promoting the research in RSOD.

* Accepted with IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine. More than 300 papers relevant to the RSOD filed were reviewed in this survey 
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Dynamic Tiling: A Model-Agnostic, Adaptive, Scalable, and Inference-Data-Centric Approach for Efficient and Accurate Small Object Detection

Sep 20, 2023
Son The Nguyen, Theja Tulabandhula, Duy Nguyen

We introduce Dynamic Tiling, a model-agnostic, adaptive, and scalable approach for small object detection, anchored in our inference-data-centric philosophy. Dynamic Tiling starts with non-overlapping tiles for initial detections and utilizes dynamic overlapping rates along with a tile minimizer. This dual approach effectively resolves fragmented objects, improves detection accuracy, and minimizes computational overhead by reducing the number of forward passes through the object detection model. Adaptable to a variety of operational environments, our method negates the need for laborious recalibration. Additionally, our large-small filtering mechanism boosts the detection quality across a range of object sizes. Overall, Dynamic Tiling outperforms existing model-agnostic uniform cropping methods, setting new benchmarks for efficiency and accuracy.

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Semantics-aware LiDAR-Only Pseudo Point Cloud Generation for 3D Object Detection

Sep 16, 2023
Tiago Cortinhal, Idriss Gouigah, Eren Erdal Aksoy

Although LiDAR sensors are crucial for autonomous systems due to providing precise depth information, they struggle with capturing fine object details, especially at a distance, due to sparse and non-uniform data. Recent advances introduced pseudo-LiDAR, i.e., synthetic dense point clouds, using additional modalities such as cameras to enhance 3D object detection. We present a novel LiDAR-only framework that augments raw scans with denser pseudo point clouds by solely relying on LiDAR sensors and scene semantics, omitting the need for cameras. Our framework first utilizes a segmentation model to extract scene semantics from raw point clouds, and then employs a multi-modal domain translator to generate synthetic image segments and depth cues without real cameras. This yields a dense pseudo point cloud enriched with semantic information. We also introduce a new semantically guided projection method, which enhances detection performance by retaining only relevant pseudo points. We applied our framework to different advanced 3D object detection methods and reported up to 2.9% performance upgrade. We also obtained comparable results on the KITTI 3D object detection dataset, in contrast to other state-of-the-art LiDAR-only detectors.

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DA-RAW: Domain Adaptive Object Detection for Real-World Adverse Weather Conditions

Sep 15, 2023
Minsik Jeon, Junwon Seo, Jihong Min

Despite the success of deep learning-based object detection methods in recent years, it is still challenging to make the object detector reliable in adverse weather conditions such as rain and snow. For the robust performance of object detectors, unsupervised domain adaptation has been utilized to adapt the detection network trained on clear weather images to adverse weather images. While previous methods do not explicitly address weather corruption during adaptation, the domain gap between clear and adverse weather can be decomposed into two factors with distinct characteristics: a style gap and a weather gap. In this paper, we present an unsupervised domain adaptation framework for object detection that can more effectively adapt to real-world environments with adverse weather conditions by addressing these two gaps separately. Our method resolves the style gap by concentrating on style-related information of high-level features using an attention module. Using self-supervised contrastive learning, our framework then reduces the weather gap and acquires instance features that are robust to weather corruption. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method outperforms other methods for object detection in adverse weather conditions.

* Our video can be found at 
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ALWOD: Active Learning for Weakly-Supervised Object Detection

Sep 14, 2023
Yuting Wang, Velibor Ilic, Jiatong Li, Branislav Kisacanin, Vladimir Pavlovic

Object detection (OD), a crucial vision task, remains challenged by the lack of large training datasets with precise object localization labels. In this work, we propose ALWOD, a new framework that addresses this problem by fusing active learning (AL) with weakly and semi-supervised object detection paradigms. Because the performance of AL critically depends on the model initialization, we propose a new auxiliary image generator strategy that utilizes an extremely small labeled set, coupled with a large weakly tagged set of images, as a warm-start for AL. We then propose a new AL acquisition function, another critical factor in AL success, that leverages the student-teacher OD pair disagreement and uncertainty to effectively propose the most informative images to annotate. Finally, to complete the AL loop, we introduce a new labeling task delegated to human annotators, based on selection and correction of model-proposed detections, which is both rapid and effective in labeling the informative images. We demonstrate, across several challenging benchmarks, that ALWOD significantly narrows the gap between the ODs trained on few partially labeled but strategically selected image instances and those that rely on the fully-labeled data. Our code is publicly available on

* published in ICCV 2023 
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Mutual Information-calibrated Conformal Feature Fusion for Uncertainty-Aware Multimodal 3D Object Detection at the Edge

Sep 18, 2023
Alex C. Stutts, Danilo Erricolo, Sathya Ravi, Theja Tulabandhula, Amit Ranjan Trivedi

In the expanding landscape of AI-enabled robotics, robust quantification of predictive uncertainties is of great importance. Three-dimensional (3D) object detection, a critical robotics operation, has seen significant advancements; however, the majority of current works focus only on accuracy and ignore uncertainty quantification. Addressing this gap, our novel study integrates the principles of conformal inference (CI) with information theoretic measures to perform lightweight, Monte Carlo-free uncertainty estimation within a multimodal framework. Through a multivariate Gaussian product of the latent variables in a Variational Autoencoder (VAE), features from RGB camera and LiDAR sensor data are fused to improve the prediction accuracy. Normalized mutual information (NMI) is leveraged as a modulator for calibrating uncertainty bounds derived from CI based on a weighted loss function. Our simulation results show an inverse correlation between inherent predictive uncertainty and NMI throughout the model's training. The framework demonstrates comparable or better performance in KITTI 3D object detection benchmarks to similar methods that are not uncertainty-aware, making it suitable for real-time edge robotics.

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