The stunning qualitative improvement of recent text-to-image models has led to their widespread attention and adoption. However, we lack a comprehensive quantitative understanding of their capabilities and risks. To fill this gap, we introduce a new benchmark, Holistic Evaluation of Text-to-Image Models (HEIM). Whereas previous evaluations focus mostly on text-image alignment and image quality, we identify 12 aspects, including text-image alignment, image quality, aesthetics, originality, reasoning, knowledge, bias, toxicity, fairness, robustness, multilinguality, and efficiency. We curate 62 scenarios encompassing these aspects and evaluate 26 state-of-the-art text-to-image models on this benchmark. Our results reveal that no single model excels in all aspects, with different models demonstrating different strengths. We release the generated images and human evaluation results for full transparency at https://crfm.stanford.edu/heim/v1.1.0 and the code at https://github.com/stanford-crfm/helm, which is integrated with the HELM codebase.
Large Language Models like ChatGPT demonstrate a remarkable capacity to learn new concepts during inference without any fine-tuning. However, visual models trained to detect new objects during inference have been unable to replicate this ability, and instead either perform poorly or require meta-training and/or fine-tuning on similar objects. In this work, we propose a meta-learning algorithm that emulates Large Language Models by learning new visual concepts during inference without fine-tuning. Our approach leverages a frozen pre-trained feature extractor, and analogous to in-context learning, recasts meta-learning as sequence modeling over datapoints with known labels and a test datapoint with an unknown label. On 8 out of 11 meta-learning benchmarks, our approach -- without meta-training or fine-tuning -- exceeds or matches the state-of-the-art algorithm, P>M>F, which is meta-trained on these benchmarks.
In-context learning has become an important approach for few-shot learning in Large Language Models because of its ability to rapidly adapt to new tasks without fine-tuning model parameters. However, it is restricted to applications in natural language and inapplicable to other domains. In this paper, we adapt the concepts underpinning in-context learning to develop a new algorithm for few-shot molecular property prediction. Our approach learns to predict molecular properties from a context of (molecule, property measurement) pairs and rapidly adapts to new properties without fine-tuning. On the FS-Mol and BACE molecular property prediction benchmarks, we find this method surpasses the performance of recent meta-learning algorithms at small support sizes and is competitive with the best methods at large support sizes.
Chain-of-thought (CoT) prompting for language models demonstrates impressive performance across reasoning tasks, but typically needs labeled exemplars of the reasoning process. In this work, we introduce a new prompting approach, Analogical Prompting, designed to automatically guide the reasoning process of large language models. Inspired by analogical reasoning, a cognitive process in which humans draw from relevant past experiences to tackle new problems, our approach prompts language models to self-generate relevant exemplars or knowledge in the context, before proceeding to solve the given problem. This method presents several advantages: it obviates the need for labeling or retrieving exemplars, offering generality and convenience; it can also tailor the generated exemplars and knowledge to each problem, offering adaptability. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms 0-shot CoT and manual few-shot CoT in a variety of reasoning tasks, including math problem solving in GSM8K and MATH, code generation in Codeforces, and other reasoning tasks in BIG-Bench.
Scientific experimentation involves an iterative process of creating hypotheses, designing experiments, running experiments, and analyzing the results. Can we build AI research agents to perform these long-horizon tasks? To take a step towards building and evaluating research agents on such open-ended decision-making tasks, we focus on the problem of machine learning engineering: given a task description and a dataset, build a high-performing model. In this paper, we propose MLAgentBench, a suite of ML tasks for benchmarking AI research agents. Agents can perform actions like reading/writing files, executing code, and inspecting outputs. With these actions, agents could run experiments, analyze the results, and modify the code of entire machine learning pipelines, such as data processing, architecture, training processes, etc. The benchmark then automatically evaluates the agent's performance objectively over various metrics related to performance and efficiency. We also design an LLM-based research agent to automatically perform experimentation loops in such an environment. Empirically, we find that a GPT-4-based research agent can feasibly build compelling ML models over many tasks in MLAgentBench, displaying highly interpretable plans and actions. However, the success rates vary considerably; they span from almost 90\% on well-established older datasets to as low as 10\% on recent Kaggle Challenges -- unavailable during the LLM model's pretraining -- and even 0\% on newer research challenges like BabyLM. Finally, we identify several key challenges for LLM-based research agents such as long-term planning and hallucination. Our code is released at https://github.com/snap-stanford/MLAgentBench.
Training Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) on real-world graphs consisting of billions of nodes and edges is quite challenging, primarily due to the substantial memory needed to store the graph and its intermediate node and edge features, and there is a pressing need to speed up the training process. A common approach to achieve speed up is to divide the graph into many smaller subgraphs, which are then distributed across multiple GPUs in one or more machines and processed in parallel. However, existing distributed methods require frequent and substantial cross-GPU communication, leading to significant time overhead and progressively diminishing scalability. Here, we introduce CoFree-GNN, a novel distributed GNN training framework that significantly speeds up the training process by implementing communication-free training. The framework utilizes a Vertex Cut partitioning, i.e., rather than partitioning the graph by cutting the edges between partitions, the Vertex Cut partitions the edges and duplicates the node information to preserve the graph structure. Furthermore, the framework maintains high model accuracy by incorporating a reweighting mechanism to handle a distorted graph distribution that arises from the duplicated nodes. We also propose a modified DropEdge technique to further speed up the training process. Using an extensive set of experiments on real-world networks, we demonstrate that CoFree-GNN speeds up the GNN training process by up to 10 times over the existing state-of-the-art GNN training approaches.
Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) conduct message passing which aggregates local neighbors to update node representations. Such message passing leads to scalability issues in practical latency-constrained applications. To address this issue, recent methods adopt knowledge distillation (KD) to learn computationally-efficient multi-layer perceptron (MLP) by mimicking the output of GNN. However, the existing GNN representation space may not be expressive enough for representing diverse local structures of the underlying graph, which limits the knowledge transfer from GNN to MLP. Here we present a novel framework VQGraph to learn a powerful graph representation space for bridging GNNs and MLPs. We adopt the encoder of a variant of a vector-quantized variational autoencoder (VQ-VAE) as a structure-aware graph tokenizer, which explicitly represents the nodes of diverse local structures as numerous discrete tokens and constitutes a meaningful codebook. Equipped with the learned codebook, we propose a new token-based distillation objective based on soft token assignments to sufficiently transfer the structural knowledge from GNN to MLP. Extensive experiments and analyses demonstrate the strong performance of VQGraph, where we achieve new state-of-the-art performance on GNN-MLP distillation in both transductive and inductive settings across seven graph datasets. We show that VQGraph with better performance infers faster than GNNs by 828x, and also achieves accuracy improvement over GNNs and stand-alone MLPs by 3.90% and 28.05% on average, respectively. Code: https://github.com/YangLing0818/VQGraph.
Medicine, by its nature, is a multifaceted domain that requires the synthesis of information across various modalities. Medical generative vision-language models (VLMs) make a first step in this direction and promise many exciting clinical applications. However, existing models typically have to be fine-tuned on sizeable down-stream datasets, which poses a significant limitation as in many medical applications data is scarce, necessitating models that are capable of learning from few examples in real-time. Here we propose Med-Flamingo, a multimodal few-shot learner adapted to the medical domain. Based on OpenFlamingo-9B, we continue pre-training on paired and interleaved medical image-text data from publications and textbooks. Med-Flamingo unlocks few-shot generative medical visual question answering (VQA) abilities, which we evaluate on several datasets including a novel challenging open-ended VQA dataset of visual USMLE-style problems. Furthermore, we conduct the first human evaluation for generative medical VQA where physicians review the problems and blinded generations in an interactive app. Med-Flamingo improves performance in generative medical VQA by up to 20\% in clinician's rating and firstly enables multimodal medical few-shot adaptations, such as rationale generation. We release our model, code, and evaluation app under https://github.com/snap-stanford/med-flamingo.
Advances in artificial intelligence (AI) are fueling a new paradigm of discoveries in natural sciences. Today, AI has started to advance natural sciences by improving, accelerating, and enabling our understanding of natural phenomena at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, giving rise to a new area of research known as AI for science (AI4Science). Being an emerging research paradigm, AI4Science is unique in that it is an enormous and highly interdisciplinary area. Thus, a unified and technical treatment of this field is needed yet challenging. This paper aims to provide a technically thorough account of a subarea of AI4Science; namely, AI for quantum, atomistic, and continuum systems. These areas aim at understanding the physical world from the subatomic (wavefunctions and electron density), atomic (molecules, proteins, materials, and interactions), to macro (fluids, climate, and subsurface) scales and form an important subarea of AI4Science. A unique advantage of focusing on these areas is that they largely share a common set of challenges, thereby allowing a unified and foundational treatment. A key common challenge is how to capture physics first principles, especially symmetries, in natural systems by deep learning methods. We provide an in-depth yet intuitive account of techniques to achieve equivariance to symmetry transformations. We also discuss other common technical challenges, including explainability, out-of-distribution generalization, knowledge transfer with foundation and large language models, and uncertainty quantification. To facilitate learning and education, we provide categorized lists of resources that we found to be useful. We strive to be thorough and unified and hope this initial effort may trigger more community interests and efforts to further advance AI4Science.
We present the Temporal Graph Benchmark (TGB), a collection of challenging and diverse benchmark datasets for realistic, reproducible, and robust evaluation of machine learning models on temporal graphs. TGB datasets are of large scale, spanning years in duration, incorporate both node and edge-level prediction tasks and cover a diverse set of domains including social, trade, transaction, and transportation networks. For both tasks, we design evaluation protocols based on realistic use-cases. We extensively benchmark each dataset and find that the performance of common models can vary drastically across datasets. In addition, on dynamic node property prediction tasks, we show that simple methods often achieve superior performance compared to existing temporal graph models. We believe that these findings open up opportunities for future research on temporal graphs. Finally, TGB provides an automated machine learning pipeline for reproducible and accessible temporal graph research, including data loading, experiment setup and performance evaluation. TGB will be maintained and updated on a regular basis and welcomes community feedback. TGB datasets, data loaders, example codes, evaluation setup, and leaderboards are publicly available at https://tgb.complexdatalab.com/ .