The Segment Anything Model (SAM) exhibits remarkable versatility and zero-shot learning abilities, owing largely to its extensive training data (SA-1B). Recognizing SAM's dependency on manual guidance given its category-agnostic nature, we identified unexplored potential within few-shot semantic segmentation tasks for remote sensing imagery. This research introduces a structured framework designed for the automation of few-shot semantic segmentation. It utilizes the SAM model and facilitates a more efficient generation of semantically discernible segmentation outcomes. Central to our methodology is a novel automatic prompt learning approach, leveraging prior guided masks to produce coarse pixel-wise prompts for SAM. Extensive experiments on the DLRSD datasets underline the superiority of our approach, outperforming other available few-shot methodologies.
Few-shot segmentation (FSS) is proposed to segment unknown class targets with just a few annotated samples. Most current FSS methods follow the paradigm of mining the semantics from the support images to guide the query image segmentation. However, such a pattern of `learning from others' struggles to handle the extreme intra-class variation, preventing FSS from being directly generalized to remote sensing scenes. To bridge the gap of intra-class variance, we develop a Dual-Mining network named DMNet for cross-image mining and self-mining, meaning that it no longer focuses solely on support images but pays more attention to the query image itself. Specifically, we propose a Class-public Region Mining (CPRM) module to effectively suppress irrelevant feature pollution by capturing the common semantics between the support-query image pair. The Class-specific Region Mining (CSRM) module is then proposed to continuously mine the class-specific semantics of the query image itself in a `filtering' and `purifying' manner. In addition, to prevent the co-existence of multiple classes in remote sensing scenes from exacerbating the collapse of FSS generalization, we also propose a new Known-class Meta Suppressor (KMS) module to suppress the activation of known-class objects in the sample. Extensive experiments on the iSAID and LoveDA remote sensing datasets have demonstrated that our method sets the state-of-the-art with a minimum number of model parameters. Significantly, our model with the backbone of Resnet-50 achieves the mIoU of 49.58% and 51.34% on iSAID under 1-shot and 5-shot settings, outperforming the state-of-the-art method by 1.8% and 1.12%, respectively. The code is publicly available at https://github.com/HanboBizl/DMNet.
Height estimation has long been a pivotal topic within measurement and remote sensing disciplines, proving critical for endeavours such as 3D urban modelling, MR and autonomous driving. Traditional methods utilise stereo matching or multisensor fusion, both well-established techniques that typically necessitate multiple images from varying perspectives and adjunct sensors like SAR, leading to substantial deployment costs. Single image height estimation has emerged as an attractive alternative, boasting a larger data source variety and simpler deployment. However, current methods suffer from limitations such as fixed receptive fields, a lack of global information interaction, leading to noticeable instance-level height deviations. The inherent complexity of height prediction can result in a blurry estimation of object edge depth when using mainstream regression methods based on fixed height division. This paper presents a comprehensive solution for monocular height estimation in remote sensing, termed HeightFormer, combining multilevel interactions and image-adaptive classification-regression. It features the Multilevel Interaction Backbone (MIB) and Image-adaptive Classification-regression Height Generator (ICG). MIB supplements the fixed sample grid in CNN of the conventional backbone network with tokens of different interaction ranges. It is complemented by a pixel-, patch-, and feature map-level hierarchical interaction mechanism, designed to relay spatial geometry information across different scales and introducing a global receptive field to enhance the quality of instance-level height estimation. The ICG dynamically generates height partition for each image and reframes the traditional regression task, using a refinement from coarse to fine classification-regression that significantly mitigates the innate ill-posedness issue and drastically improves edge sharpness.
Modern autonomous driving systems are typically divided into three main tasks: perception, prediction, and planning. The planning task involves predicting the trajectory of the ego vehicle based on inputs from both internal intention and the external environment, and manipulating the vehicle accordingly. Most existing works evaluate their performance on the nuScenes dataset using the L2 error and collision rate between the predicted trajectories and the ground truth. In this paper, we reevaluate these existing evaluation metrics and explore whether they accurately measure the superiority of different methods. Specifically, we design an MLP-based method that takes raw sensor data (e.g., past trajectory, velocity, etc.) as input and directly outputs the future trajectory of the ego vehicle, without using any perception or prediction information such as camera images or LiDAR. Surprisingly, such a simple method achieves state-of-the-art end-to-end planning performance on the nuScenes dataset, reducing the average L2 error by about 30%. We further conduct in-depth analysis and provide new insights into the factors that are critical for the success of the planning task on nuScenes dataset. Our observation also indicates that we need to rethink the current open-loop evaluation scheme of end-to-end autonomous driving in nuScenes. Codes are available at https://github.com/E2E-AD/AD-MLP.
Occlusion between objects is one of the overlooked challenges for object detection in UAV images. Due to the variable altitude and angle of UAVs, occlusion in UAV images happens more frequently than that in natural scenes. Compared to occlusion in natural scene images, occlusion in UAV images happens with feature confusion problem and local aggregation characteristic. And we found that extracting or localizing occlusion between objects is beneficial for the detector to address this challenge. According to this finding, the occlusion localization task is introduced, which together with the object detection task constitutes our occlusion-guided multi-task network (OGMN). The OGMN contains the localization of occlusion and two occlusion-guided multi-task interactions. In detail, an occlusion estimation module (OEM) is proposed to precisely localize occlusion. Then the OGMN utilizes the occlusion localization results to implement occlusion-guided detection with two multi-task interactions. One interaction for the guide is between two task decoders to address the feature confusion problem, and an occlusion decoupling head (ODH) is proposed to replace the general detection head. Another interaction for guide is designed in the detection process according to local aggregation characteristic, and a two-phase progressive refinement process (TPP) is proposed to optimize the detection process. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our OGMN on the Visdrone and UAVDT datasets. In particular, our OGMN achieves 35.0% mAP on the Visdrone dataset and outperforms the baseline by 5.3%. And our OGMN provides a new insight for accurate occlusion localization and achieves competitive detection performance.
Building extraction and height estimation are two important basic tasks in remote sensing image interpretation, which are widely used in urban planning, real-world 3D construction, and other fields. Most of the existing research regards the two tasks as independent studies. Therefore the height information cannot be fully used to improve the accuracy of building extraction and vice versa. In this work, we combine the individuaL buIlding extraction and heiGHt estimation through a unified multiTask learning network (LIGHT) for the first time, which simultaneously outputs a height map, bounding boxes, and a segmentation mask map of buildings. Specifically, LIGHT consists of an instance segmentation branch and a height estimation branch. In particular, so as to effectively unify multi-scale feature branches and alleviate feature spans between branches, we propose a Gated Cross Task Interaction (GCTI) module that can efficiently perform feature interaction between branches. Experiments on the DFC2023 dataset show that our LIGHT can achieve superior performance, and our GCTI module with ResNet101 as the backbone can significantly improve the performance of multitask learning by 2.8% AP50 and 6.5% delta1, respectively.
Building 3D reconstruction from remote sensing images has a wide range of applications in smart cities, photogrammetry and other fields. Methods for automatic 3D urban building modeling typically employ multi-view images as input to algorithms to recover point clouds and 3D models of buildings. However, such models rely heavily on multi-view images of buildings, which are time-intensive and limit the applicability and practicality of the models. To solve these issues, we focus on designing an efficient DSM estimation-driven reconstruction framework (Building3D), which aims to reconstruct 3D building models from the input single-view remote sensing image. First, we propose a Semantic Flow Field-guided DSM Estimation (SFFDE) network, which utilizes the proposed concept of elevation semantic flow to achieve the registration of local and global features. Specifically, in order to make the network semantics globally aware, we propose an Elevation Semantic Globalization (ESG) module to realize the semantic globalization of instances. Further, in order to alleviate the semantic span of global features and original local features, we propose a Local-to-Global Elevation Semantic Registration (L2G-ESR) module based on elevation semantic flow. Our Building3D is rooted in the SFFDE network for building elevation prediction, synchronized with a building extraction network for building masks, and then sequentially performs point cloud reconstruction, surface reconstruction (or CityGML model reconstruction). On this basis, our Building3D can optionally generate CityGML models or surface mesh models of the buildings. Extensive experiments on ISPRS Vaihingen and DFC2019 datasets on the DSM estimation task show that our SFFDE significantly improves upon state-of-the-arts. Furthermore, our Building3D achieves impressive results in the 3D point cloud and 3D model reconstruction process.
Few-shot object detection, expecting detectors to detect novel classes with a few instances, has made conspicuous progress. However, the prototypes extracted by existing meta-learning based methods still suffer from insufficient representative information and lack awareness of query images, which cannot be adaptively tailored to different query images. Firstly, only the support images are involved for extracting prototypes, resulting in scarce perceptual information of query images. Secondly, all pixels of all support images are treated equally when aggregating features into prototype vectors, thus the salient objects are overwhelmed by the cluttered background. In this paper, we propose an Information-Coupled Prototype Elaboration (ICPE) method to generate specific and representative prototypes for each query image. Concretely, a conditional information coupling module is introduced to couple information from the query branch to the support branch, strengthening the query-perceptual information in support features. Besides, we design a prototype dynamic aggregation module that dynamically adjusts intra-image and inter-image aggregation weights to highlight the salient information useful for detecting query images. Experimental results on both Pascal VOC and MS COCO demonstrate that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance in almost all settings.
Semantic localization (SeLo) refers to the task of obtaining the most relevant locations in large-scale remote sensing (RS) images using semantic information such as text. As an emerging task based on cross-modal retrieval, SeLo achieves semantic-level retrieval with only caption-level annotation, which demonstrates its great potential in unifying downstream tasks. Although SeLo has been carried out successively, but there is currently no work has systematically explores and analyzes this urgent direction. In this paper, we thoroughly study this field and provide a complete benchmark in terms of metrics and testdata to advance the SeLo task. Firstly, based on the characteristics of this task, we propose multiple discriminative evaluation metrics to quantify the performance of the SeLo task. The devised significant area proportion, attention shift distance, and discrete attention distance are utilized to evaluate the generated SeLo map from pixel-level and region-level. Next, to provide standard evaluation data for the SeLo task, we contribute a diverse, multi-semantic, multi-objective Semantic Localization Testset (AIR-SLT). AIR-SLT consists of 22 large-scale RS images and 59 test cases with different semantics, which aims to provide a comprehensive evaluations for retrieval models. Finally, we analyze the SeLo performance of RS cross-modal retrieval models in detail, explore the impact of different variables on this task, and provide a complete benchmark for the SeLo task. We have also established a new paradigm for RS referring expression comprehension, and demonstrated the great advantage of SeLo in semantics through combining it with tasks such as detection and road extraction. The proposed evaluation metrics, semantic localization testsets, and corresponding scripts have been open to access at github.com/xiaoyuan1996/SemanticLocalizationMetrics .
Few-shot segmentation of point cloud remains a challenging task, as there is no effective way to convert local point cloud information to global representation, which hinders the generalization ability of point features. In this study, we propose a bidirectional feature globalization (BFG) approach, which leverages the similarity measurement between point features and prototype vectors to embed global perception to local point features in a bidirectional fashion. With point-to-prototype globalization (Po2PrG), BFG aggregates local point features to prototypes according to similarity weights from dense point features to sparse prototypes. With prototype-to-point globalization (Pr2PoG), the global perception is embedded to local point features based on similarity weights from sparse prototypes to dense point features. The sparse prototypes of each class embedded with global perception are summarized to a single prototype for few-shot 3D segmentation based on the metric learning framework. Extensive experiments on S3DIS and ScanNet demonstrate that BFG significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.