Diagram object detection is the key basis of practical applications such as textbook question answering. Because the diagram mainly consists of simple lines and color blocks, its visual features are sparser than those of natural images. In addition, diagrams usually express diverse knowledge, in which there are many low-frequency object categories in diagrams. These lead to the fact that traditional data-driven detection model is not suitable for diagrams. In this work, we propose a gestalt-perception transformer model for diagram object detection, which is based on an encoder-decoder architecture. Gestalt perception contains a series of laws to explain human perception, that the human visual system tends to perceive patches in an image that are similar, close or connected without abrupt directional changes as a perceptual whole object. Inspired by these thoughts, we build a gestalt-perception graph in transformer encoder, which is composed of diagram patches as nodes and the relationships between patches as edges. This graph aims to group these patches into objects via laws of similarity, proximity, and smoothness implied in these edges, so that the meaningful objects can be effectively detected. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed GPTR achieves the best results in the diagram object detection task. Our model also obtains comparable results over the competitors in natural image object detection.
Visual Information Extraction (VIE) task aims to extract key information from multifarious document images (e.g., invoices and purchase receipts). Most previous methods treat the VIE task simply as a sequence labeling problem or classification problem, which requires models to carefully identify each kind of semantics by introducing multimodal features, such as font, color, layout. But simply introducing multimodal features couldn't work well when faced with numeric semantic categories or some ambiguous texts. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a novel key-value matching model based on a graph neural network for VIE (MatchVIE). Through key-value matching based on relevancy evaluation, the proposed MatchVIE can bypass the recognitions to various semantics, and simply focuses on the strong relevancy between entities. Besides, we introduce a simple but effective operation, Num2Vec, to tackle the instability of encoded values, which helps model converge more smoothly. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed MatchVIE can significantly outperform previous methods. Notably, to the best of our knowledge, MatchVIE may be the first attempt to tackle the VIE task by modeling the relevancy between keys and values and it is a good complement to the existing methods.
In this paper, we fill the research gap by adopting state-of-the-art computer vision techniques for the data extraction stage in a data mining system. As shown in Fig.1, this stage contains two subtasks, namely, plot element detection and data conversion. For building a robust box detector, we comprehensively compare different deep learning-based methods and find a suitable method to detect box with high precision. For building a robust point detector, a fully convolutional network with feature fusion module is adopted, which can distinguish close points compared to traditional methods. The proposed system can effectively handle various chart data without making heuristic assumptions. For data conversion, we translate the detected element into data with semantic value. A network is proposed to measure feature similarities between legends and detected elements in the legend matching phase. Furthermore, we provide a baseline on the competition of Harvesting raw tables from Infographics. Some key factors have been found to improve the performance of each stage. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system.
Visual information extraction (VIE) has attracted considerable attention recently owing to its various advanced applications such as document understanding, automatic marking and intelligent education. Most existing works decoupled this problem into several independent sub-tasks of text spotting (text detection and recognition) and information extraction, which completely ignored the high correlation among them during optimization. In this paper, we propose a robust visual information extraction system (VIES) towards real-world scenarios, which is a unified end-to-end trainable framework for simultaneous text detection, recognition and information extraction by taking a single document image as input and outputting the structured information. Specifically, the information extraction branch collects abundant visual and semantic representations from text spotting for multimodal feature fusion and conversely, provides higher-level semantic clues to contribute to the optimization of text spotting. Moreover, regarding the shortage of public benchmarks, we construct a fully-annotated dataset called EPHOIE (https://github.com/HCIILAB/EPHOIE), which is the first Chinese benchmark for both text spotting and visual information extraction. EPHOIE consists of 1,494 images of examination paper head with complex layouts and background, including a total of 15,771 Chinese handwritten or printed text instances. Compared with the state-of-the-art methods, our VIES shows significant superior performance on the EPHOIE dataset and achieves a 9.01% F-score gain on the widely used SROIE dataset under the end-to-end scenario.
Text recognition has attracted considerable research interests because of its various applications. The cutting-edge text recognition methods are based on attention mechanisms. However, most of attention methods usually suffer from serious alignment problem due to its recurrency alignment operation, where the alignment relies on historical decoding results. To remedy this issue, we propose a decoupled attention network (DAN), which decouples the alignment operation from using historical decoding results. DAN is an effective, flexible and robust end-to-end text recognizer, which consists of three components: 1) a feature encoder that extracts visual features from the input image; 2) a convolutional alignment module that performs the alignment operation based on visual features from the encoder; and 3) a decoupled text decoder that makes final prediction by jointly using the feature map and attention maps. Experimental results show that DAN achieves state-of-the-art performance on multiple text recognition tasks, including offline handwritten text recognition and regular/irregular scene text recognition.
Scene text in the wild is commonly presented with high variant characteristics. Using quadrilateral bounding box to localize the text instance is nearly indispensable for detection methods. However, recent researches reveal that introducing quadrilateral bounding box for scene text detection will bring a label confusion issue which is easily overlooked, and this issue may significantly undermine the detection performance. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a novel method called Sequential-free Box Discretization (SBD) by discretizing the bounding box into key edges (KE) which can further derive more effective methods to improve detection performance. Experiments showed that the proposed method can outperform state-of-the-art methods in many popular scene text benchmarks, including ICDAR 2015, MLT, and MSRA-TD500. Ablation study also showed that simply integrating the SBD into Mask R-CNN framework, the detection performance can be substantially improved. Furthermore, an experiment on the general object dataset HRSC2016 (multi-oriented ships) showed that our method can outperform recent state-of-the-art methods by a large margin, demonstrating its powerful generalization ability.