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Bernt Schiele

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SSB: Simple but Strong Baseline for Boosting Performance of Open-Set Semi-Supervised Learning

Nov 17, 2023
Yue Fan, Anna Kukleva, Dengxin Dai, Bernt Schiele

Semi-supervised learning (SSL) methods effectively leverage unlabeled data to improve model generalization. However, SSL models often underperform in open-set scenarios, where unlabeled data contain outliers from novel categories that do not appear in the labeled set. In this paper, we study the challenging and realistic open-set SSL setting, where the goal is to both correctly classify inliers and to detect outliers. Intuitively, the inlier classifier should be trained on inlier data only. However, we find that inlier classification performance can be largely improved by incorporating high-confidence pseudo-labeled data, regardless of whether they are inliers or outliers. Also, we propose to utilize non-linear transformations to separate the features used for inlier classification and outlier detection in the multi-task learning framework, preventing adverse effects between them. Additionally, we introduce pseudo-negative mining, which further boosts outlier detection performance. The three ingredients lead to what we call Simple but Strong Baseline (SSB) for open-set SSL. In experiments, SSB greatly improves both inlier classification and outlier detection performance, outperforming existing methods by a large margin. Our code will be released at

* Paper accepted in ICCV 2023 
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Wakening Past Concepts without Past Data: Class-Incremental Learning from Online Placebos

Oct 24, 2023
Yaoyao Liu, Yingying Li, Bernt Schiele, Qianru Sun

Not forgetting old class knowledge is a key challenge for class-incremental learning (CIL) when the model continuously adapts to new classes. A common technique to address this is knowledge distillation (KD), which penalizes prediction inconsistencies between old and new models. Such prediction is made with almost new class data, as old class data is extremely scarce due to the strict memory limitation in CIL. In this paper, we take a deep dive into KD losses and find that "using new class data for KD" not only hinders the model adaption (for learning new classes) but also results in low efficiency for preserving old class knowledge. We address this by "using the placebos of old classes for KD", where the placebos are chosen from a free image stream, such as Google Images, in an automatical and economical fashion. To this end, we train an online placebo selection policy to quickly evaluate the quality of streaming images (good or bad placebos) and use only good ones for one-time feed-forward computation of KD. We formulate the policy training process as an online Markov Decision Process (MDP), and introduce an online learning algorithm to solve this MDP problem without causing much computation costs. In experiments, we show that our method 1) is surprisingly effective even when there is no class overlap between placebos and original old class data, 2) does not require any additional supervision or memory budget, and 3) significantly outperforms a number of top-performing CIL methods, in particular when using lower memory budgets for old class exemplars, e.g., five exemplars per class.

* Accepted to WACV 2024. Code: 
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HowToCaption: Prompting LLMs to Transform Video Annotations at Scale

Oct 07, 2023
Nina Shvetsova, Anna Kukleva, Xudong Hong, Christian Rupprecht, Bernt Schiele, Hilde Kuehne

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Instructional videos are an excellent source for learning multimodal representations by leveraging video-subtitle pairs extracted with automatic speech recognition systems (ASR) from the audio signal in the videos. However, in contrast to human-annotated captions, both speech and subtitles naturally differ from the visual content of the videos and thus provide only noisy supervision for multimodal learning. As a result, large-scale annotation-free web video training data remains sub-optimal for training text-video models. In this work, we propose to leverage the capability of large language models (LLMs) to obtain fine-grained video descriptions aligned with videos. Specifically, we prompt an LLM to create plausible video descriptions based on ASR narrations of the video for a large-scale instructional video dataset. To this end, we introduce a prompting method that is able to take into account a longer text of subtitles, allowing us to capture context beyond a single sentence. To align the captions to the video temporally, we prompt the LLM to generate timestamps for each produced caption based on the subtitles. In this way, we obtain human-style video captions at scale without human supervision. We apply our method to the subtitles of the HowTo100M dataset, creating a new large-scale dataset, HowToCaption. Our evaluation shows that the resulting captions not only significantly improve the performance over many different benchmark datasets for text-video retrieval but also lead to a disentangling of textual narration from the audio, boosting performance in text-video-audio tasks.

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DARTH: Holistic Test-time Adaptation for Multiple Object Tracking

Oct 03, 2023
Mattia Segu, Bernt Schiele, Fisher Yu

Multiple object tracking (MOT) is a fundamental component of perception systems for autonomous driving, and its robustness to unseen conditions is a requirement to avoid life-critical failures. Despite the urge of safety in driving systems, no solution to the MOT adaptation problem to domain shift in test-time conditions has ever been proposed. However, the nature of a MOT system is manifold - requiring object detection and instance association - and adapting all its components is non-trivial. In this paper, we analyze the effect of domain shift on appearance-based trackers, and introduce DARTH, a holistic test-time adaptation framework for MOT. We propose a detection consistency formulation to adapt object detection in a self-supervised fashion, while adapting the instance appearance representations via our novel patch contrastive loss. We evaluate our method on a variety of domain shifts - including sim-to-real, outdoor-to-indoor, indoor-to-outdoor - and substantially improve the source model performance on all metrics. Code:

* Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision 
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Unsupervised Open-Vocabulary Object Localization in Videos

Sep 18, 2023
Ke Fan, Zechen Bai, Tianjun Xiao, Dominik Zietlow, Max Horn, Zixu Zhao, Carl-Johann Simon-Gabriel, Mike Zheng Shou, Francesco Locatello, Bernt Schiele, Thomas Brox, Zheng Zhang, Yanwei Fu, Tong He

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In this paper, we show that recent advances in video representation learning and pre-trained vision-language models allow for substantial improvements in self-supervised video object localization. We propose a method that first localizes objects in videos via a slot attention approach and then assigns text to the obtained slots. The latter is achieved by an unsupervised way to read localized semantic information from the pre-trained CLIP model. The resulting video object localization is entirely unsupervised apart from the implicit annotation contained in CLIP, and it is effectively the first unsupervised approach that yields good results on regular video benchmarks.

* Accepted by ICCV 2023 
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In-Style: Bridging Text and Uncurated Videos with Style Transfer for Text-Video Retrieval

Sep 16, 2023
Nina Shvetsova, Anna Kukleva, Bernt Schiele, Hilde Kuehne

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Large-scale noisy web image-text datasets have been proven to be efficient for learning robust vision-language models. However, when transferring them to the task of video retrieval, models still need to be fine-tuned on hand-curated paired text-video data to adapt to the diverse styles of video descriptions. To address this problem without the need for hand-annotated pairs, we propose a new setting, text-video retrieval with uncurated & unpaired data, that during training utilizes only text queries together with uncurated web videos without any paired text-video data. To this end, we propose an approach, In-Style, that learns the style of the text queries and transfers it to uncurated web videos. Moreover, to improve generalization, we show that one model can be trained with multiple text styles. To this end, we introduce a multi-style contrastive training procedure that improves the generalizability over several datasets simultaneously. We evaluate our model on retrieval performance over multiple datasets to demonstrate the advantages of our style transfer framework on the new task of uncurated & unpaired text-video retrieval and improve state-of-the-art performance on zero-shot text-video retrieval.

* Published at ICCV 2023, code: 
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Certified Robust Models with Slack Control and Large Lipschitz Constants

Sep 12, 2023
Max Losch, David Stutz, Bernt Schiele, Mario Fritz

Despite recent success, state-of-the-art learning-based models remain highly vulnerable to input changes such as adversarial examples. In order to obtain certifiable robustness against such perturbations, recent work considers Lipschitz-based regularizers or constraints while at the same time increasing prediction margin. Unfortunately, this comes at the cost of significantly decreased accuracy. In this paper, we propose a Calibrated Lipschitz-Margin Loss (CLL) that addresses this issue and improves certified robustness by tackling two problems: Firstly, commonly used margin losses do not adjust the penalties to the shrinking output distribution; caused by minimizing the Lipschitz constant $K$. Secondly, and most importantly, we observe that minimization of $K$ can lead to overly smooth decision functions. This limits the model's complexity and thus reduces accuracy. Our CLL addresses these issues by explicitly calibrating the loss w.r.t. margin and Lipschitz constant, thereby establishing full control over slack and improving robustness certificates even with larger Lipschitz constants. On CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100 and Tiny-ImageNet, our models consistently outperform losses that leave the constant unattended. On CIFAR-100 and Tiny-ImageNet, CLL improves upon state-of-the-art deterministic $L_2$ robust accuracies. In contrast to current trends, we unlock potential of much smaller models without $K=1$ constraints.

* To be published at GCPR 2023 
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SimNP: Learning Self-Similarity Priors Between Neural Points

Sep 07, 2023
Christopher Wewer, Eddy Ilg, Bernt Schiele, Jan Eric Lenssen

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Existing neural field representations for 3D object reconstruction either (1) utilize object-level representations, but suffer from low-quality details due to conditioning on a global latent code, or (2) are able to perfectly reconstruct the observations, but fail to utilize object-level prior knowledge to infer unobserved regions. We present SimNP, a method to learn category-level self-similarities, which combines the advantages of both worlds by connecting neural point radiance fields with a category-level self-similarity representation. Our contribution is two-fold. (1) We design the first neural point representation on a category level by utilizing the concept of coherent point clouds. The resulting neural point radiance fields store a high level of detail for locally supported object regions. (2) We learn how information is shared between neural points in an unconstrained and unsupervised fashion, which allows to derive unobserved regions of an object during the reconstruction process from given observations. We show that SimNP is able to outperform previous methods in reconstructing symmetric unseen object regions, surpassing methods that build upon category-level or pixel-aligned radiance fields, while providing semantic correspondences between instances

* ICCV 2023 
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Object-Centric Multiple Object Tracking

Sep 05, 2023
Zixu Zhao, Jiaze Wang, Max Horn, Yizhuo Ding, Tong He, Zechen Bai, Dominik Zietlow, Carl-Johann Simon-Gabriel, Bing Shuai, Zhuowen Tu, Thomas Brox, Bernt Schiele, Yanwei Fu, Francesco Locatello, Zheng Zhang, Tianjun Xiao

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Unsupervised object-centric learning methods allow the partitioning of scenes into entities without additional localization information and are excellent candidates for reducing the annotation burden of multiple-object tracking (MOT) pipelines. Unfortunately, they lack two key properties: objects are often split into parts and are not consistently tracked over time. In fact, state-of-the-art models achieve pixel-level accuracy and temporal consistency by relying on supervised object detection with additional ID labels for the association through time. This paper proposes a video object-centric model for MOT. It consists of an index-merge module that adapts the object-centric slots into detection outputs and an object memory module that builds complete object prototypes to handle occlusions. Benefited from object-centric learning, we only require sparse detection labels (0%-6.25%) for object localization and feature binding. Relying on our self-supervised Expectation-Maximization-inspired loss for object association, our approach requires no ID labels. Our experiments significantly narrow the gap between the existing object-centric model and the fully supervised state-of-the-art and outperform several unsupervised trackers.

* ICCV 2023 camera-ready version 
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