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Anshul Nasery, Hardik Shah, Arun Sai Suggala, Prateek Jain

Neural network (NN) compression via techniques such as pruning, quantization requires setting compression hyperparameters (e.g., number of channels to be pruned, bitwidths for quantization) for each layer either manually or via neural architecture search (NAS) which can be computationally expensive. We address this problem by providing an end-to-end technique that optimizes for model's Floating Point Operations (FLOPs) or for on-device latency via a novel $\frac{\ell_1}{\ell_2}$ latency surrogate. Our algorithm is versatile and can be used with many popular compression methods including pruning, low-rank factorization, and quantization. Crucially, it is fast and runs in almost the same amount of time as single model training; which is a significant training speed-up over standard NAS methods. For BERT compression on GLUE fine-tuning tasks, we achieve $50\%$ reduction in FLOPs with only $1\%$ drop in performance. For compressing MobileNetV3 on ImageNet-1K, we achieve $15\%$ reduction in FLOPs, and $11\%$ reduction in on-device latency without drop in accuracy, while still requiring $3\times$ less training compute than SOTA compression techniques. Finally, for transfer learning on smaller datasets, our technique identifies $1.2\times$-$1.4\times$ cheaper architectures than standard MobileNetV3, EfficientNet suite of architectures at almost the same training cost and accuracy.

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Aniket Rege, Aditya Kusupati, Sharan Ranjit S, Alan Fan, Qingqing Cao, Sham Kakade, Prateek Jain, Ali Farhadi

Web-scale search systems learn an encoder to embed a given query which is then hooked into an approximate nearest neighbor search (ANNS) pipeline to retrieve similar data points. To accurately capture tail queries and data points, learned representations typically are rigid, high-dimensional vectors that are generally used as-is in the entire ANNS pipeline and can lead to computationally expensive retrieval. In this paper, we argue that instead of rigid representations, different stages of ANNS can leverage adaptive representations of varying capacities to achieve significantly better accuracy-compute trade-offs, i.e., stages of ANNS that can get away with more approximate computation should use a lower-capacity representation of the same data point. To this end, we introduce AdANNS, a novel ANNS design framework that explicitly leverages the flexibility of Matryoshka Representations. We demonstrate state-of-the-art accuracy-compute trade-offs using novel AdANNS-based key ANNS building blocks like search data structures (AdANNS-IVF) and quantization (AdANNS-OPQ). For example on ImageNet retrieval, AdANNS-IVF is up to 1.5% more accurate than the rigid representations-based IVF at the same compute budget; and matches accuracy while being up to 90x faster in wall-clock time. For Natural Questions, 32-byte AdANNS-OPQ matches the accuracy of the 64-byte OPQ baseline constructed using rigid representations -- same accuracy at half the cost! We further show that the gains from AdANNS translate to modern-day composite ANNS indices that combine search structures and quantization. Finally, we demonstrate that AdANNS can enable inference-time adaptivity for compute-aware search on ANNS indices built non-adaptively on matryoshka representations. Code is open-sourced at https://github.com/RAIVNLab/AdANNS.

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Walid Krichene, Prateek Jain, Shuang Song, Mukund Sundararajan, Abhradeep Thakurta, Li Zhang

We study the problem of multi-task learning under user-level differential privacy, in which $n$ users contribute data to $m$ tasks, each involving a subset of users. One important aspect of the problem, that can significantly impact quality, is the distribution skew among tasks. Certain tasks may have much fewer data samples than others, making them more susceptible to the noise added for privacy. It is natural to ask whether algorithms can adapt to this skew to improve the overall utility. We give a systematic analysis of the problem, by studying how to optimally allocate a user's privacy budget among tasks. We propose a generic algorithm, based on an adaptive reweighting of the empirical loss, and show that when there is task distribution skew, this gives a quantifiable improvement of excess empirical risk. Experimental studies on recommendation problems that exhibit a long tail of small tasks, demonstrate that our methods significantly improve utility, achieving the state of the art on two standard benchmarks.

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Depen Morwani, Jatin Batra, Prateek Jain, Praneeth Netrapalli

Recent works have demonstrated that neural networks exhibit extreme simplicity bias(SB). That is, they learn only the simplest features to solve a task at hand, even in the presence of other, more robust but more complex features. Due to the lack of a general and rigorous definition of features, these works showcase SB on semi-synthetic datasets such as Color-MNIST, MNIST-CIFAR where defining features is relatively easier. In this work, we rigorously define as well as thoroughly establish SB for one hidden layer neural networks. More concretely, (i) we define SB as the network essentially being a function of a low dimensional projection of the inputs (ii) theoretically, we show that when the data is linearly separable, the network primarily depends on only the linearly separable ($1$-dimensional) subspace even in the presence of an arbitrarily large number of other, more complex features which could have led to a significantly more robust classifier, (iii) empirically, we show that models trained on real datasets such as Imagenette and Waterbirds-Landbirds indeed depend on a low dimensional projection of the inputs, thereby demonstrating SB on these datasets, iv) finally, we present a natural ensemble approach that encourages diversity in models by training successive models on features not used by earlier models, and demonstrate that it yields models that are significantly more robust to Gaussian noise.

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Abhishek Sharma, Arpit Jain, Shubhangi Sharma, Ashutosh Gupta, Prateek Jain, Saraju P. Mohanty

ADHD is a prevalent disorder among the younger population. Standard evaluation techniques currently use evaluation forms, interviews with the patient, and more. However, its symptoms are similar to those of many other disorders like depression, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder, and these current diagnosis techniques are not very effective. Thus, a sophisticated computing model holds the potential to provide a promising diagnosis solution to this problem. This work attempts to explore methods to diagnose ADHD using combinations of multiple established machine learning techniques like neural networks and SVM models on the ADHD200 dataset and explore the field of neuroscience. In this work, multiclass classification is performed on phenotypic data using an SVM model. The better results have been analyzed on the phenotypic data compared to other supervised learning techniques like Logistic regression, KNN, AdaBoost, etc. In addition, neural networks have been implemented on functional connectivity from the MRI data of a sample of 40 subjects provided to achieve high accuracy without prior knowledge of neuroscience. It is combined with the phenotypic classifier using the ensemble technique to get a binary classifier. It is further trained and tested on 400 out of 824 subjects from the ADHD200 data set and achieved an accuracy of 92.5% for binary classification The training and testing accuracy has been achieved upto 99% using ensemble classifier.

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Xiyang Liu, Prateek Jain, Weihao Kong, Sewoong Oh, Arun Sai Suggala

We study the canonical statistical estimation problem of linear regression from $n$ i.i.d.~examples under $(\varepsilon,\delta)$-differential privacy when some response variables are adversarially corrupted. We propose a variant of the popular differentially private stochastic gradient descent (DP-SGD) algorithm with two innovations: a full-batch gradient descent to improve sample complexity and a novel adaptive clipping to guarantee robustness. When there is no adversarial corruption, this algorithm improves upon the existing state-of-the-art approach and achieves a near optimal sample complexity. Under label-corruption, this is the first efficient linear regression algorithm to guarantee both $(\varepsilon,\delta)$-DP and robustness. Synthetic experiments confirm the superiority of our approach.

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Soumyabrata Pal, Arun Sai Suggala, Karthikeyan Shanmugam, Prateek Jain

We consider the problem of latent bandits with cluster structure where there are multiple users, each with an associated multi-armed bandit problem. These users are grouped into \emph{latent} clusters such that the mean reward vectors of users within the same cluster are identical. At each round, a user, selected uniformly at random, pulls an arm and observes a corresponding noisy reward. The goal of the users is to maximize their cumulative rewards. This problem is central to practical recommendation systems and has received wide attention of late \cite{gentile2014online, maillard2014latent}. Now, if each user acts independently, then they would have to explore each arm independently and a regret of $\Omega(\sqrt{\mathsf{MNT}})$ is unavoidable, where $\mathsf{M}, \mathsf{N}$ are the number of arms and users, respectively. Instead, we propose LATTICE (Latent bAndiTs via maTrIx ComplEtion) which allows exploitation of the latent cluster structure to provide the minimax optimal regret of $\widetilde{O}(\sqrt{(\mathsf{M}+\mathsf{N})\mathsf{T}})$, when the number of clusters is $\widetilde{O}(1)$. This is the first algorithm to guarantee such a strong regret bound. LATTICE is based on a careful exploitation of arm information within a cluster while simultaneously clustering users. Furthermore, it is computationally efficient and requires only $O(\log{\mathsf{T}})$ calls to an offline matrix completion oracle across all $\mathsf{T}$ rounds.

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Prateek Jain, Srinjoy Ganguly

In molecular research, simulation \& design of molecules are key areas with significant implications for drug development, material science, and other fields. Current classical computational power falls inadequate to simulate any more than small molecules, let alone protein chains on hundreds of peptide. Therefore these experiment are done physically in wet-lab, but it takes a lot of time \& not possible to examine every molecule due to the size of the search area, tens of billions of dollars are spent every year in these research experiments. Molecule simulation \& design has lately advanced significantly by machine learning models, A fresh perspective on the issue of chemical synthesis is provided by deep generative models for graph-structured data. By optimising differentiable models that produce molecular graphs directly, it is feasible to avoid costly search techniques in the discrete and huge space of chemical structures. But these models also suffer from computational limitations when dimensions become huge and consume huge amount of resources. Quantum Generative machine learning in recent years have shown some empirical results promising significant advantages over classical counterparts.

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Hasan Mustafa, Sai Nandan Morapakula, Prateek Jain, Srinjoy Ganguly

Quantum computing has gained a lot of attention recently, and scientists have seen potential applications in this field using quantum computing for Cryptography and Communication to Machine Learning and Healthcare. Protein folding has been one of the most interesting areas to study, and it is also one of the biggest problems of biochemistry. Each protein folds distinctively, and the difficulty of finding its stable shape rapidly increases with an increase in the number of amino acids in the chain. A moderate protein has about 100 amino acids, and the number of combinations one needs to verify to find the stable structure is enormous. At some point, the number of these combinations will be so vast that classical computers cannot even attempt to solve them. In this paper, we examine how this problem can be solved with the help of quantum computing using two different algorithms, Variational Quantum Eigensolver (VQE) and Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA), using Qiskit Nature. We compare the results of different quantum hardware and simulators and check how error mitigation affects the performance. Further, we make comparisons with SoTA algorithms and evaluate the reliability of the method.

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Naman Agarwal, Prateek Jain, Suhas Kowshik, Dheeraj Nagaraj, Praneeth Netrapalli

In this work, we consider the problem of collaborative multi-user reinforcement learning. In this setting there are multiple users with the same state-action space and transition probabilities but with different rewards. Under the assumption that the reward matrix of the $N$ users has a low-rank structure -- a standard and practically successful assumption in the offline collaborative filtering setting -- the question is can we design algorithms with significantly lower sample complexity compared to the ones that learn the MDP individually for each user. Our main contribution is an algorithm which explores rewards collaboratively with $N$ user-specific MDPs and can learn rewards efficiently in two key settings: tabular MDPs and linear MDPs. When $N$ is large and the rank is constant, the sample complexity per MDP depends logarithmically over the size of the state-space, which represents an exponential reduction (in the state-space size) when compared to the standard ``non-collaborative'' algorithms.

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