Deep convolutional neural networks have achieved great progress in image denoising tasks. However, their complicated architectures and heavy computational cost hinder their deployments on a mobile device. Some recent efforts in designing lightweight denoising networks focus on reducing either FLOPs (floating-point operations) or the number of parameters. However, these metrics are not directly correlated with the on-device latency. By performing extensive analysis and experiments, we identify the network architectures that can fully utilize powerful neural processing units (NPUs) and thus enjoy both low latency and excellent denoising performance. To this end, we propose a mobile-friendly denoising network, namely MFDNet. The experiments show that MFDNet achieves state-of-the-art performance on real-world denoising benchmarks SIDD and DND under real-time latency on mobile devices. The code and pre-trained models will be released.
* Under review at the 2023 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics,
Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP 2023)
Image-adaptive lookup tables (LUTs) have achieved great success in real-time image enhancement tasks due to their high efficiency for modeling color transforms. However, they embed the complete transform, including the color component-independent and the component-correlated parts, into only a single type of LUTs, either 1D or 3D, in a coupled manner. This scheme raises a dilemma of improving model expressiveness or efficiency due to two factors. On the one hand, the 1D LUTs provide high computational efficiency but lack the critical capability of color components interaction. On the other, the 3D LUTs present enhanced component-correlated transform capability but suffer from heavy memory footprint, high training difficulty, and limited cell utilization. Inspired by the conventional divide-and-conquer practice in the image signal processor, we present SepLUT (separable image-adaptive lookup table) to tackle the above limitations. Specifically, we separate a single color transform into a cascade of component-independent and component-correlated sub-transforms instantiated as 1D and 3D LUTs, respectively. In this way, the capabilities of two sub-transforms can facilitate each other, where the 3D LUT complements the ability to mix up color components, and the 1D LUT redistributes the input colors to increase the cell utilization of the 3D LUT and thus enable the use of a more lightweight 3D LUT. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method presents enhanced performance on photo retouching benchmark datasets than the current state-of-the-art and achieves real-time processing on both GPUs and CPUs.
This paper reviews the NTIRE 2022 challenge on efficient single image super-resolution with focus on the proposed solutions and results. The task of the challenge was to super-resolve an input image with a magnification factor of $\times$4 based on pairs of low and corresponding high resolution images. The aim was to design a network for single image super-resolution that achieved improvement of efficiency measured according to several metrics including runtime, parameters, FLOPs, activations, and memory consumption while at least maintaining the PSNR of 29.00dB on DIV2K validation set. IMDN is set as the baseline for efficiency measurement. The challenge had 3 tracks including the main track (runtime), sub-track one (model complexity), and sub-track two (overall performance). In the main track, the practical runtime performance of the submissions was evaluated. The rank of the teams were determined directly by the absolute value of the average runtime on the validation set and test set. In sub-track one, the number of parameters and FLOPs were considered. And the individual rankings of the two metrics were summed up to determine a final ranking in this track. In sub-track two, all of the five metrics mentioned in the description of the challenge including runtime, parameter count, FLOPs, activations, and memory consumption were considered. Similar to sub-track one, the rankings of five metrics were summed up to determine a final ranking. The challenge had 303 registered participants, and 43 teams made valid submissions. They gauge the state-of-the-art in efficient single image super-resolution.
The 3D Lookup Table (3D LUT) is a highly-efficient tool for real-time image enhancement tasks, which models a non-linear 3D color transform by sparsely sampling it into a discretized 3D lattice. Previous works have made efforts to learn image-adaptive output color values of LUTs for flexible enhancement but neglect the importance of sampling strategy. They adopt a sub-optimal uniform sampling point allocation, limiting the expressiveness of the learned LUTs since the (tri-)linear interpolation between uniform sampling points in the LUT transform might fail to model local non-linearities of the color transform. Focusing on this problem, we present AdaInt (Adaptive Intervals Learning), a novel mechanism to achieve a more flexible sampling point allocation by adaptively learning the non-uniform sampling intervals in the 3D color space. In this way, a 3D LUT can increase its capability by conducting dense sampling in color ranges requiring highly non-linear transforms and sparse sampling for near-linear transforms. The proposed AdaInt could be implemented as a compact and efficient plug-and-play module for a 3D LUT-based method. To enable the end-to-end learning of AdaInt, we design a novel differentiable operator called AiLUT-Transform (Adaptive Interval LUT Transform) to locate input colors in the non-uniform 3D LUT and provide gradients to the sampling intervals. Experiments demonstrate that methods equipped with AdaInt can achieve state-of-the-art performance on two public benchmark datasets with a negligible overhead increase. Our source code is available at https://github.com/ImCharlesY/AdaInt.
We present a method to extract a video sequence from a single motion-blurred image. Motion-blurred images are the result of an averaging process, where instant frames are accumulated over time during the exposure of the sensor. Unfortunately, reversing this process is nontrivial. Firstly, averaging destroys the temporal ordering of the frames. Secondly, the recovery of a single frame is a blind deconvolution task, which is highly ill-posed. We present a deep learning scheme that gradually reconstructs a temporal ordering by sequentially extracting pairs of frames. Our main contribution is to introduce loss functions invariant to the temporal order. This lets a neural network choose during training what frame to output among the possible combinations. We also address the ill-posedness of deblurring by designing a network with a large receptive field and implemented via resampling to achieve a higher computational efficiency. Our proposed method can successfully retrieve sharp image sequences from a single motion blurred image and can generalize well on synthetic and real datasets captured with different cameras.
In this paper we introduce a natural image prior that directly represents a Gaussian-smoothed version of the natural image distribution. We include our prior in a formulation of image restoration as a Bayes estimator that also allows us to solve noise-blind image restoration problems. We show that the gradient of our prior corresponds to the mean-shift vector on the natural image distribution. In addition, we learn the mean-shift vector field using denoising autoencoders, and use it in a gradient descent approach to perform Bayes risk minimization. We demonstrate competitive results for noise-blind deblurring, super-resolution, and demosaicing.