In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective approach for self-supervised video object segmentation (VOS). Our key insight is that the inherent structural dependencies present in DINO-pretrained Transformers can be leveraged to establish robust spatio-temporal correspondences in videos. Furthermore, simple clustering on this correspondence cue is sufficient to yield competitive segmentation results. Previous self-supervised VOS techniques majorly resort to auxiliary modalities or utilize iterative slot attention to assist in object discovery, which restricts their general applicability and imposes higher computational requirements. To deal with these challenges, we develop a simplified architecture that capitalizes on the emerging objectness from DINO-pretrained Transformers, bypassing the need for additional modalities or slot attention. Specifically, we first introduce a single spatio-temporal Transformer block to process the frame-wise DINO features and establish spatio-temporal dependencies in the form of self-attention. Subsequently, utilizing these attention maps, we implement hierarchical clustering to generate object segmentation masks. To train the spatio-temporal block in a fully self-supervised manner, we employ semantic and dynamic motion consistency coupled with entropy normalization. Our method demonstrates state-of-the-art performance across multiple unsupervised VOS benchmarks and particularly excels in complex real-world multi-object video segmentation tasks such as DAVIS-17-Unsupervised and YouTube-VIS-19. The code and model checkpoints will be released at https://github.com/shvdiwnkozbw/SSL-UVOS.
Vision transformers (ViTs) have emerged as a prevalent architecture for vision tasks owing to their impressive performance. However, when it comes to handling long token sequences, especially in dense prediction tasks that require high-resolution input, the complexity of ViTs increases significantly. Notably, dense prediction tasks, such as semantic segmentation or object detection, emphasize more on the contours or shapes of objects, while the texture inside objects is less informative. Motivated by this observation, we propose to apply adaptive resolution for different regions in the image according to their importance. Specifically, at the intermediate layer of the ViT, we utilize a spatial-aware density-based clustering algorithm to select representative tokens from the token sequence. Once the representative tokens are determined, we proceed to merge other tokens into their closest representative token. Consequently, semantic similar tokens are merged together to form low-resolution regions, while semantic irrelevant tokens are preserved independently as high-resolution regions. This strategy effectively reduces the number of tokens, allowing subsequent layers to handle a reduced token sequence and achieve acceleration. We evaluate our proposed method on three different datasets and observe promising performance. For example, the "Segmenter ViT-L" model can be accelerated by 48% FPS without fine-tuning, while maintaining the performance. Additionally, our method can be applied to accelerate fine-tuning as well. Experimental results demonstrate that we can save 52% training time while accelerating 2.46 times FPS with only a 0.09% performance drop. The code is available at https://github.com/caddyless/ailurus/tree/main.
Learned image compression (LIC) has gained traction as an effective solution for image storage and transmission in recent years. However, existing LIC methods are redundant in latent representation due to limitations in capturing anisotropic frequency components and preserving directional details. To overcome these challenges, we propose a novel frequency-aware transformer (FAT) block that for the first time achieves multiscale directional ananlysis for LIC. The FAT block comprises frequency-decomposition window attention (FDWA) modules to capture multiscale and directional frequency components of natural images. Additionally, we introduce frequency-modulation feed-forward network (FMFFN) to adaptively modulate different frequency components, improving rate-distortion performance. Furthermore, we present a transformer-based channel-wise autoregressive (T-CA) model that effectively exploits channel dependencies. Experiments show that our method achieves state-of-the-art rate-distortion performance compared to existing LIC methods, and evidently outperforms latest standardized codec VTM-12.1 by 14.5%, 15.1%, 13.0% in BD-rate on the Kodak, Tecnick, and CLIC datasets.
Multi-modal Large Language Models (MLLMs) have made significant strides in expanding the capabilities of Large Language Models (LLMs) through the incorporation of visual perception interfaces. Despite the emergence of exciting applications and the availability of diverse instruction tuning data, existing approaches often rely on CLIP or its variants as the visual branch, and merely extract features from the deep layers. However, these methods lack a comprehensive analysis of the visual encoders in MLLMs. In this paper, we conduct an extensive investigation into the effectiveness of different vision encoders within MLLMs. Our findings reveal that the shallow layer features of CLIP offer particular advantages for fine-grained tasks such as grounding and region understanding. Surprisingly, the vision-only model DINO, which is not pretrained with text-image alignment, demonstrates promising performance as a visual branch within MLLMs. By simply equipping it with an MLP layer for alignment, DINO surpasses CLIP in fine-grained related perception tasks. Building upon these observations, we propose a simple yet effective feature merging strategy, named COMM, that integrates CLIP and DINO with Multi-level features Merging, to enhance the visual capabilities of MLLMs. We evaluate COMM through comprehensive experiments on a wide range of benchmarks, including image captioning, visual question answering, visual grounding, and object hallucination. Experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of COMM compared to existing methods, showcasing its enhanced visual capabilities within MLLMs. Code will be made available at https://github.com/YuchenLiu98/COMM.
Transformers have become the primary backbone of the computer vision community due to their impressive performance. However, the unfriendly computation cost impedes their potential in the video recognition domain. To optimize the speed-accuracy trade-off, we propose Semantic-aware Temporal Accumulation score (STA) to prune spatio-temporal tokens integrally. STA score considers two critical factors: temporal redundancy and semantic importance. The former depicts a specific region based on whether it is a new occurrence or a seen entity by aggregating token-to-token similarity in consecutive frames while the latter evaluates each token based on its contribution to the overall prediction. As a result, tokens with higher scores of STA carry more temporal redundancy as well as lower semantics thus being pruned. Based on the STA score, we are able to progressively prune the tokens without introducing any additional parameters or requiring further re-training. We directly apply the STA module to off-the-shelf ViT and VideoSwin backbones, and the empirical results on Kinetics-400 and Something-Something V2 achieve over 30% computation reduction with a negligible ~0.2% accuracy drop. The code is released at https://github.com/Mark12Ding/STA.
Recent 2D-to-3D human pose estimation (HPE) utilizes temporal consistency across sequences to alleviate the depth ambiguity problem but ignore the action related prior knowledge hidden in the pose sequence. In this paper, we propose a plug-and-play module named Action Prompt Module (APM) that effectively mines different kinds of action clues for 3D HPE. The highlight is that, the mining scheme of APM can be widely adapted to different frameworks and bring consistent benefits. Specifically, we first present a novel Action-related Text Prompt module (ATP) that directly embeds action labels and transfers the rich language information in the label to the pose sequence. Besides, we further introduce Action-specific Pose Prompt module (APP) to mine the position-aware pose pattern of each action, and exploit the correlation between the mined patterns and input pose sequence for further pose refinement. Experiments show that APM can improve the performance of most video-based 2D-to-3D HPE frameworks by a large margin.
Representation learning has been evolving from traditional supervised training to Contrastive Learning (CL) and Masked Image Modeling (MIM). Previous works have demonstrated their pros and cons in specific scenarios, i.e., CL and supervised pre-training excel at capturing longer-range global patterns and enabling better feature discrimination, while MIM can introduce more local and diverse attention across all transformer layers. In this paper, we explore how to obtain a model that combines their strengths. We start by examining previous feature distillation and mask feature reconstruction methods and identify their limitations. We find that their increasing diversity mainly derives from the asymmetric designs, but these designs may in turn compromise the discrimination ability. In order to better obtain both discrimination and diversity, we propose a simple but effective Hybrid Distillation strategy, which utilizes both the supervised/CL teacher and the MIM teacher to jointly guide the student model. Hybrid Distill imitates the token relations of the MIM teacher to alleviate attention collapse, as well as distills the feature maps of the supervised/CL teacher to enable discrimination. Furthermore, a progressive redundant token masking strategy is also utilized to reduce the distilling costs and avoid falling into local optima. Experiment results prove that Hybrid Distill can achieve superior performance on different benchmarks.
Due to the complex and changing interactions in dynamic scenarios, motion forecasting is a challenging problem in autonomous driving. Most existing works exploit static road graphs to characterize scenarios and are limited in modeling evolving spatio-temporal dependencies in dynamic scenarios. In this paper, we resort to dynamic heterogeneous graphs to model the scenario. Various scenario components including vehicles (agents) and lanes, multi-type interactions, and their changes over time are jointly encoded. Furthermore, we design a novel heterogeneous graph convolutional recurrent network, aggregating diverse interaction information and capturing their evolution, to learn to exploit intrinsic spatio-temporal dependencies in dynamic graphs and obtain effective representations of dynamic scenarios. Finally, with a motion forecasting decoder, our model predicts realistic and multi-modal future trajectories of agents and outperforms state-of-the-art published works on several motion forecasting benchmarks.
JPEG images can be further compressed to enhance the storage and transmission of large-scale image datasets. Existing learned lossless compressors for RGB images cannot be well transferred to JPEG images due to the distinguishing distribution of DCT coefficients and raw pixels. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for learned lossless compression of JPEG images that achieves end-to-end optimized prediction of the distribution of decoded DCT coefficients. To enable learning in the frequency domain, DCT coefficients are partitioned into groups to utilize implicit local redundancy. An autoencoder-like architecture is designed based on the weight-shared blocks to realize entropy modeling of grouped DCT coefficients and independently compress the priors. We attempt to realize learned lossless compression of JPEG images in the frequency domain. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed framework achieves superior or comparable performance in comparison to most recent lossless compressors with handcrafted context modeling for JPEG images.