Deep neural network ensembles combine the wisdom of multiple deep neural networks to improve the generalizability and robustness over individual networks. It has gained increasing popularity to study deep ensemble techniques in the deep learning community. Some mission-critical applications utilize a large number of deep neural networks to form deep ensembles to achieve desired accuracy and resilience, which introduces high time and space costs for ensemble execution. However, it still remains a critical challenge whether a small subset of the entire deep ensemble can achieve the same or better generalizability and how to effectively identify these small deep ensembles for improving the space and time efficiency of ensemble execution. This paper presents a novel deep ensemble pruning approach, which can efficiently identify smaller deep ensembles and provide higher ensemble accuracy than the entire deep ensemble of a large number of member networks. Our hierarchical ensemble pruning approach (HQ) leverages three novel ensemble pruning techniques. First, we show that the focal diversity metrics can accurately capture the complementary capacity of the member networks of an ensemble, which can guide ensemble pruning. Second, we design a focal diversity based hierarchical pruning approach, which will iteratively find high quality deep ensembles with low cost and high accuracy. Third, we develop a focal diversity consensus method to integrate multiple focal diversity metrics to refine ensemble pruning results, where smaller deep ensembles can be effectively identified to offer high accuracy, high robustness and high efficiency. Evaluated using popular benchmark datasets, we demonstrate that the proposed hierarchical ensemble pruning approach can effectively identify high quality deep ensembles with better generalizability while being more time and space efficient in ensemble decision making.
This paper provides a systematic analysis of the opportunities, challenges, and potential solutions of harnessing Large Language Models (LLMs) such as GPT-4 to dig out vulnerabilities within smart contracts based on our ongoing research. For the task of smart contract vulnerability detection, achieving practical usability hinges on identifying as many true vulnerabilities as possible while minimizing the number of false positives. Nonetheless, our empirical study reveals contradictory yet interesting findings: generating more answers with higher randomness largely boosts the likelihood of producing a correct answer but inevitably leads to a higher number of false positives. To mitigate this tension, we propose an adversarial framework dubbed GPTLens that breaks the conventional one-stage detection into two synergistic stages $-$ generation and discrimination, for progressive detection and refinement, wherein the LLM plays dual roles, i.e., auditor and critic, respectively. The goal of auditor is to yield a broad spectrum of vulnerabilities with the hope of encompassing the correct answer, whereas the goal of critic that evaluates the validity of identified vulnerabilities is to minimize the number of false positives. Experimental results and illustrative examples demonstrate that auditor and critic work together harmoniously to yield pronounced improvements over the conventional one-stage detection. GPTLens is intuitive, strategic, and entirely LLM-driven without relying on specialist expertise in smart contracts, showcasing its methodical generality and potential to detect a broad spectrum of vulnerabilities. Our code is available at: https://github.com/git-disl/GPTLens.
Deep neural network ensembles hold the potential of improving generalization performance for complex learning tasks. This paper presents formal analysis and empirical evaluation to show that heterogeneous deep ensembles with high ensemble diversity can effectively leverage model learning heterogeneity to boost ensemble robustness. We first show that heterogeneous DNN models trained for solving the same learning problem, e.g., object detection, can significantly strengthen the mean average precision (mAP) through our weighted bounding box ensemble consensus method. Second, we further compose ensembles of heterogeneous models for solving different learning problems, e.g., object detection and semantic segmentation, by introducing the connected component labeling (CCL) based alignment. We show that this two-tier heterogeneity driven ensemble construction method can compose an ensemble team that promotes high ensemble diversity and low negative correlation among member models of the ensemble, strengthening ensemble robustness against both negative examples and adversarial attacks. Third, we provide a formal analysis of the ensemble robustness in terms of negative correlation. Extensive experiments validate the enhanced robustness of heterogeneous ensembles in both benign and adversarial settings. The source codes are available on GitHub at https://github.com/git-disl/HeteRobust.
This paper plans to develop an Equitable and Responsible AI framework with enabling techniques and algorithms for the Internet of Energy (IoE), in short, RAI4IoE. The energy sector is going through substantial changes fueled by two key drivers: building a zero-carbon energy sector and the digital transformation of the energy infrastructure. We expect to see the convergence of these two drivers resulting in the IoE, where renewable distributed energy resources (DERs), such as electric cars, storage batteries, wind turbines and photovoltaics (PV), can be connected and integrated for reliable energy distribution by leveraging advanced 5G-6G networks and AI technology. This allows DER owners as prosumers to participate in the energy market and derive economic incentives. DERs are inherently asset-driven and face equitable challenges (i.e., fair, diverse and inclusive). Without equitable access, privileged individuals, groups and organizations can participate and benefit at the cost of disadvantaged groups. The real-time management of DER resources not only brings out the equity problem to the IoE, it also collects highly sensitive location, time, activity dependent data, which requires to be handled responsibly (e.g., privacy, security and safety), for AI-enhanced predictions, optimization and prioritization services, and automated management of flexible resources. The vision of our project is to ensure equitable participation of the community members and responsible use of their data in IoE so that it could reap the benefits of advances in AI to provide safe, reliable and sustainable energy services.
Object tracking is an important functionality of edge video analytic systems and services. Multi-object tracking (MOT) detects the moving objects and tracks their locations frame by frame as real scenes are being captured into a video. However, it is well known that real time object tracking on the edge poses critical technical challenges, especially with edge devices of heterogeneous computing resources. This paper examines the performance issues and edge-specific optimization opportunities for object tracking. We will show that even the well trained and optimized MOT model may still suffer from random frame dropping problems when edge devices have insufficient computation resources. We present several edge specific performance optimization strategies, collectively coined as EMO, to speed up the real time object tracking, ranging from window-based optimization to similarity based optimization. Extensive experiments on popular MOT benchmarks demonstrate that our EMO approach is competitive with respect to the representative methods for on-device object tracking techniques in terms of run-time performance and tracking accuracy. EMO is released on Github at https://github.com/git-disl/EMO.
Predicting information cascade popularity is a fundamental problem in social networks. Capturing temporal attributes and cascade role information (e.g., cascade graphs and cascade sequences) is necessary for understanding the information cascade. Current methods rarely focus on unifying this information for popularity predictions, which prevents them from effectively modeling the full properties of cascades to achieve satisfactory prediction performances. In this paper, we propose an explicit Time embedding based Cascade Attention Network (TCAN) as a novel popularity prediction architecture for large-scale information networks. TCAN integrates temporal attributes (i.e., periodicity, linearity, and non-linear scaling) into node features via a general time embedding approach (TE), and then employs a cascade graph attention encoder (CGAT) and a cascade sequence attention encoder (CSAT) to fully learn the representation of cascade graphs and cascade sequences. We use two real-world datasets (i.e., Weibo and APS) with tens of thousands of cascade samples to validate our methods. Experimental results show that TCAN obtains mean logarithm squared errors of 2.007 and 1.201 and running times of 1.76 hours and 0.15 hours on both datasets, respectively. Furthermore, TCAN outperforms other representative baselines by 10.4%, 3.8%, and 10.4% in terms of MSLE, MAE, and R-squared on average while maintaining good interpretability.
Recent advancements in conversational large language models (LLMs), such as ChatGPT, have demonstrated remarkable promise in various domains, including drug discovery. However, existing works mainly focus on investigating the capabilities of conversational LLMs on chemical reaction and retrosynthesis. While drug editing, a critical task in the drug discovery pipeline, remains largely unexplored. To bridge this gap, we propose ChatDrug, a framework to facilitate the systematic investigation of drug editing using LLMs. ChatDrug jointly leverages a prompt module, a retrieval and domain feedback (ReDF) module, and a conversation module to streamline effective drug editing. We empirically show that ChatDrug reaches the best performance on 33 out of 39 drug editing tasks, encompassing small molecules, peptides, and proteins. We further demonstrate, through 10 case studies, that ChatDrug can successfully identify the key substructures (e.g., the molecule functional groups, peptide motifs, and protein structures) for manipulation, generating diverse and valid suggestions for drug editing. Promisingly, we also show that ChatDrug can offer insightful explanations from a domain-specific perspective, enhancing interpretability and enabling informed decision-making. This research sheds light on the potential of ChatGPT and conversational LLMs for drug editing. It paves the way for a more efficient and collaborative drug discovery pipeline, contributing to the advancement of pharmaceutical research and development.
Blockchain provides the unique and accountable channel for financial forensics by mining its open and immutable transaction data. A recent surge has been witnessed by training machine learning models with cryptocurrency transaction data for anomaly detection, such as money laundering and other fraudulent activities. This paper presents a holistic applied data science approach to fraud detection in the Bitcoin network with two original contributions. First, we contribute the Elliptic++ dataset, which extends the Elliptic transaction dataset to include over 822k Bitcoin wallet addresses (nodes), each with 56 features, and 1.27M temporal interactions. This enables both the detection of fraudulent transactions and the detection of illicit addresses (actors) in the Bitcoin network by leveraging four types of graph data: (i) the transaction-to-transaction graph, representing the money flow in the Bitcoin network, (ii) the address-to-address interaction graph, capturing the types of transaction flows between Bitcoin addresses, (iii) the address-transaction graph, representing the bi-directional money flow between addresses and transactions (BTC flow from input address to one or more transactions and BTC flow from a transaction to one or more output addresses), and (iv) the user entity graph, capturing clusters of Bitcoin addresses representing unique Bitcoin users. Second, we perform fraud detection tasks on all four graphs by using diverse machine learning algorithms. We show that adding enhanced features from the address-to-address and the address-transaction graphs not only assists in effectively detecting both illicit transactions and illicit addresses, but also assists in gaining in-depth understanding of the root cause of money laundering vulnerabilities in cryptocurrency transactions and the strategies for fraud detection and prevention. Released at github.com/git-disl/EllipticPlusPlus.
Studies in bias and fairness in natural language processing have primarily examined social biases within a single language and/or across few attributes (e.g. gender, race). However, biases can manifest differently across various languages for individual attributes. As a result, it is critical to examine biases within each language and attribute. Of equal importance is to study how these biases compare across languages and how the biases are affected when training a model on multilingual data versus monolingual data. We present a bias analysis across Italian, Chinese, English, Hebrew, and Spanish on the downstream sentiment analysis task to observe whether specific demographics are viewed more positively. We study bias similarities and differences across these languages and investigate the impact of multilingual vs. monolingual training data. We adapt existing sentiment bias templates in English to Italian, Chinese, Hebrew, and Spanish for four attributes: race, religion, nationality, and gender. Our results reveal similarities in bias expression such as favoritism of groups that are dominant in each language's culture (e.g. majority religions and nationalities). Additionally, we find an increased variation in predictions across protected groups, indicating bias amplification, after multilingual finetuning in comparison to multilingual pretraining.