Segmentation of the infected areas of the lung is essential for quantifying the severity of lung disease like pulmonary infections. Existing medical image segmentation methods are almost uni-modal methods based on image. However, these image-only methods tend to produce inaccurate results unless trained with large amounts of annotated data. To overcome this challenge, we propose a language-driven segmentation method that uses text prompt to improve to the segmentation result. Experiments on the QaTa-COV19 dataset indicate that our method improves the Dice score by 6.09% at least compared to the uni-modal methods. Besides, our extended study reveals the flexibility of multi-modal methods in terms of the information granularity of text and demonstrates that multi-modal methods have a significant advantage over image-only methods in terms of the size of training data required.
Crowd counting is a challenging task due to the heavy occlusions, scales, and density variations. Existing methods handle these challenges effectively while ignoring low-resolution (LR) circumstances. The LR circumstances weaken the counting performance deeply for two crucial reasons: 1) limited detail information; 2) overlapping head regions accumulate in density maps and result in extreme ground-truth values. An intuitive solution is to employ super-resolution (SR) pre-processes for the input LR images. However, it complicates the inference steps and thus limits application potentials when requiring real-time. We propose a more elegant method termed Multi-Scale Super-Resolution Module (MSSRM). It guides the network to estimate the lost de tails and enhances the detailed information in the feature space. Noteworthy that the MSSRM is plug-in plug-out and deals with the LR problems with no inference cost. As the proposed method requires SR labels, we further propose a Super-Resolution Crowd Counting dataset (SR-Crowd). Extensive experiments on three datasets demonstrate the superiority of our method. The code will be available at https://github.com/PRIS-CV/MSSRM.git.
Vessel segmentation is widely used to help with vascular disease diagnosis. Vessels reconstructed using existing methods are often not sufficiently accurate to meet clinical use standards. This is because 3D vessel structures are highly complicated and exhibit unique characteristics, including sparsity and anisotropy. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid deep neural network for vessel segmentation. Our network consists of two cascaded subnetworks performing initial and refined segmentation respectively. The second subnetwork further has two tightly coupled components, a traditional CNN-based U-Net and a graph U-Net. Cross-network multi-scale feature fusion is performed between these two U-shaped networks to effectively support high-quality vessel segmentation. The entire cascaded network can be trained from end to end. The graph in the second subnetwork is constructed according to a vessel probability map as well as appearance and semantic similarities in the original CT volume. To tackle the challenges caused by the sparsity and anisotropy of vessels, a higher percentage of graph nodes are distributed in areas that potentially contain vessels while a higher percentage of edges follow the orientation of potential nearbyvessels. Extensive experiments demonstrate our deep network achieves state-of-the-art 3D vessel segmentation performance on multiple public and in-house datasets.
Deep neural networks (DNNs) are sensitive and susceptible to tiny perturbation by adversarial attacks which causes erroneous predictions. Various methods, including adversarial defense and uncertainty inference (UI), have been developed in recent years to overcome the adversarial attacks. In this paper, we propose a multi-head uncertainty inference (MH-UI) framework for detecting adversarial attack examples. We adopt a multi-head architecture with multiple prediction heads (i.e., classifiers) to obtain predictions from different depths in the DNNs and introduce shallow information for the UI. Using independent heads at different depths, the normalized predictions are assumed to follow the same Dirichlet distribution, and we estimate distribution parameter of it by moment matching. Cognitive uncertainty brought by the adversarial attacks will be reflected and amplified on the distribution. Experimental results show that the proposed MH-UI framework can outperform all the referred UI methods in the adversarial attack detection task with different settings.
Compositional Zero-Shot Learning (CZSL) aims to recognize novel compositions using knowledge learned from seen attribute-object compositions in the training set. Previous works mainly project an image and a composition into a common embedding space to measure their compatibility score. However, both attributes and objects share the visual representations learned above, leading the model to exploit spurious correlations and bias towards seen pairs. Instead, we reconsider CZSL as an out-of-distribution generalization problem. If an object is treated as a domain, we can learn object-invariant features to recognize the attributes attached to any object reliably. Similarly, attribute-invariant features can also be learned when recognizing the objects with attributes as domains. Specifically, we propose an invariant feature learning framework to align different domains at the representation and gradient levels to capture the intrinsic characteristics associated with the tasks. Experiments on two CZSL benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed method significantly outperforms the previous state-of-the-art.
Quantitative estimation of the acute ischemic infarct is crucial to improve neurological outcomes of the patients with stroke symptoms. Since the density of lesions is subtle and can be confounded by normal physiologic changes, anatomical asymmetry provides useful information to differentiate the ischemic and healthy brain tissue. In this paper, we propose a symmetry enhanced attention network (SEAN) for acute ischemic infarct segmentation. Our proposed network automatically transforms an input CT image into the standard space where the brain tissue is bilaterally symmetric. The transformed image is further processed by a Ushape network integrated with the proposed symmetry enhanced attention for pixel-wise labelling. The symmetry enhanced attention can efficiently capture context information from the opposite side of the image by estimating long-range dependencies. Experimental results show that the proposed SEAN outperforms some symmetry-based state-of-the-art methods in terms of both dice coefficient and infarct localization.
Fine-grained visual classification (FGVC) aims to classify sub-classes of objects in the same super-class (e.g., species of birds, models of cars). For the FGVC tasks, the essential solution is to find discriminative subtle information of the target from local regions. TraditionalFGVC models preferred to use the refined features,i.e., high-level semantic information for recognition and rarely use low-level in-formation. However, it turns out that low-level information which contains rich detail information also has effect on improving performance. Therefore, in this paper, we propose cross-layer navigation convolutional neural network for feature fusion. First, the feature maps extracted by the backbone network are fed into a convolutional long short-term memory model sequentially from high-level to low-level to perform feature aggregation. Then, attention mechanisms are used after feature fusion to extract spatial and channel information while linking the high-level semantic information and the low-level texture features, which can better locate the discriminative regions for the FGVC. In the experiments, three commonly used FGVC datasets, including CUB-200-2011, Stanford-Cars, andFGVC-Aircraft datasets, are used for evaluation and we demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method by comparing it with other referred FGVC methods to show that this method achieves superior results.
RGB-infrared person re-identification is a challenging task due to the intra-class variations and cross-modality discrepancy. Existing works mainly focus on learning modality-shared global representations by aligning image styles or feature distributions across modalities, while local feature from body part and relationships between person images are largely neglected. In this paper, we propose a Dual-level (i.e., local and global) Feature Fusion (DF^2) module by learning attention for discriminative feature from local to global manner. In particular, the attention for a local feature is determined locally, i.e., applying a learned transformation function on itself. Meanwhile, to further mining the relationships between global features from person images, we propose an Affinities Modeling (AM) module to obtain the optimal intra- and inter-modality image matching. Specifically, AM employes intra-class compactness and inter-class separability in the sample similarities as supervised information to model the affinities between intra- and inter-modality samples. Experimental results show that our proposed method outperforms state-of-the-arts by large margins on two widely used cross-modality re-ID datasets SYSU-MM01 and RegDB, respectively.
Polyp segmentation is of great importance in the early diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer. Since polyps vary in their shape, size, color, and texture, accurate polyp segmentation is very challenging. One promising way to mitigate the diversity of polyps is to model the contextual relation for each pixel such as using attention mechanism. However, previous methods only focus on learning the dependencies between the position within an individual image and ignore the contextual relation across different images. In this paper, we propose Duplex Contextual Relation Network (DCRNet) to capture both within-image and cross-image contextual relations. Specifically, we first design Interior Contextual-Relation Module to estimate the similarity between each position and all the positions within the same image. Then Exterior Contextual-Relation Module is incorporated to estimate the similarity between each position and the positions across different images. Based on the above two types of similarity, the feature at one position can be further enhanced by the contextual region embedding within and across images. To store the characteristic region embedding from all the images, a memory bank is designed and operates as a queue. Therefore, the proposed method can relate similar features even though they come from different images. We evaluate the proposed method on the EndoScene, Kvasir-SEG and the recently released large-scale PICCOLO dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed DCRNet outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of the widely-used evaluation metrics.