Radiance field is an effective representation of 3D scenes, which has been widely adopted in novel-view synthesis and 3D reconstruction. It is still an open and challenging problem to evaluate the geometry, i.e., the density field, as the ground-truth is almost impossible to be obtained. One alternative indirect solution is to transform the density field into a point-cloud and compute its Chamfer Distance with the scanned ground-truth. However, many widely-used datasets have no point-cloud ground-truth since the scanning process along with the equipment is expensive and complicated. To this end, we propose a novel metric, named Inverse Mean Residual Color (IMRC), which can evaluate the geometry only with the observation images. Our key insight is that the better the geometry is, the lower-frequency the computed color field is. From this insight, given reconstructed density field and the observation images, we design a closed-form method to approximate the color field with low-frequency spherical harmonics and compute the inverse mean residual color. Then the higher the IMRC, the better the geometry. Qualitative and quantitative experimental results verify the effectiveness of our proposed IMRC metric. We also benchmark several state-of-the-art methods using IMRC to promote future related research.
Reliable and efficient validation technologies are critical for the recent development of multi-vehicle cooperation and vehicle-road-cloud integration. In this paper, we introduce our miniature experimental platform, Mixed Cloud Control Testbed (MCCT), developed based on a new notion of Mixed Digital Twin (mixedDT). Combining Mixed Reality with Digital Twin, mixedDT integrates the virtual and physical spaces into a mixed one, where physical entities coexist and interact with virtual entities via their digital counterparts. Under the framework of mixedDT, MCCT contains three major experimental platforms in the physical, virtual and mixed spaces respectively, and provides a unified access for various human-machine interfaces and external devices such as driving simulators. A cloud unit, where the mixed experimental platform is deployed, is responsible for fusing multi-platform information and assigning control instructions, contributing to synchronous operation and real-time cross-platform interaction. Particularly, MCCT allows for multi-vehicle coordination composed of different multi-source vehicles (\eg, physical vehicles, virtual vehicles and human-driven vehicles). Validations on vehicle platooning demonstrate the flexibility and scalability of MCCT.
Self-evolution is indispensable to realize full autonomous driving. This paper presents a self-evolving decision-making system based on the Integrated Decision and Control (IDC), an advanced framework built on reinforcement learning (RL). First, an RL algorithm called constrained mixed policy gradient (CMPG) is proposed to consistently upgrade the driving policy of the IDC. It adapts the MPG under the penalty method so that it can solve constrained optimization problems using both the data and model. Second, an attention-based encoding (ABE) method is designed to tackle the state representation issue. It introduces an embedding network for feature extraction and a weighting network for feature fusion, fulfilling order-insensitive encoding and importance distinguishing of road users. Finally, by fusing CMPG and ABE, we develop the first data-driven decision and control system under the IDC architecture, and deploy the system on a fully-functional self-driving vehicle running in daily operation. Experiment results show that boosting by data, the system can achieve better driving ability over model-based methods. It also demonstrates safe, efficient and smart driving behavior in various complex scenes at a signalized intersection with real mixed traffic flow.
We propose a precise and efficient normal estimation method that can deal with noise and nonuniform density for unstructured 3D point clouds. Unlike existing approaches that directly take patches and ignore the local neighborhood relationships, which make them susceptible to challenging regions such as sharp edges, we propose to learn graph convolutional feature representation for normal estimation, which emphasizes more local neighborhood geometry and effectively encodes intrinsic relationships. Additionally, we design a novel adaptive module based on the attention mechanism to integrate point features with their neighboring features, hence further enhancing the robustness of the proposed normal estimator against point density variations. To make it more distinguishable, we introduce a multi-scale architecture in the graph block to learn richer geometric features. Our method outperforms competitors with the state-of-the-art accuracy on various benchmark datasets, and is quite robust against noise, outliers, as well as the density variations.
Intersection is one of the most complex and accident-prone urban scenarios for autonomous driving wherein making safe and computationally efficient decisions is non-trivial. Current research mainly focuses on the simplified traffic conditions while ignoring the existence of mixed traffic flows, i.e., vehicles, cyclists and pedestrians. For urban roads, different participants leads to a quite dynamic and complex interaction, posing great difficulty to learn an intelligent policy. This paper develops the dynamic permutation state representation in the framework of integrated decision and control (IDC) to handle signalized intersections with mixed traffic flows. Specially, this representation introduces an encoding function and summation operator to construct driving states from environmental observation, capable of dealing with different types and variant number of traffic participants. A constrained optimal control problem is built wherein the objective involves tracking performance and the constraints for different participants and signal lights are designed respectively to assure safety. We solve this problem by offline optimizing encoding function, value function and policy function, wherein the reasonable state representation will be given by the encoding function and then served as the input of policy and value function. An off-policy training is designed to reuse observations from driving environment and backpropagation through time is utilized to update the policy function and encoding function jointly. Verification result shows that the dynamic permutation state representation can enhance the driving performance of IDC, including comfort, decision compliance and safety with a large margin. The trained driving policy can realize efficient and smooth passing in the complex intersection, guaranteeing driving intelligence and safety simultaneously.
Connected and automated vehicles have shown great potential in improving traffic mobility and reducing emissions, especially at unsignalized intersections. Previous research has shown that vehicle passing order is the key influencing factor in improving intersection traffic mobility. In this paper, we propose a graph-based cooperation method to formalize the conflict-free scheduling problem at an unsignalized intersection. Based on graphical analysis, a vehicle's trajectory conflict relationship is modeled as a conflict directed graph and a coexisting undirected graph. Then, two graph-based methods are proposed to find the vehicle passing order. The first is an improved depth-first spanning tree algorithm, which aims to find the local optimal passing order vehicle by vehicle. The other novel method is a minimum clique cover algorithm, which identifies the global optimal solution. Finally, a distributed control framework and communication topology are presented to realize the conflict-free cooperation of vehicles. Extensive numerical simulations are conducted for various numbers of vehicles and traffic volumes, and the simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Multi-lane roads are typical scenarios in the real-world traffic system. Vehicles usually have preference on lanes according to their routes and destinations. Few of the existing studies looks into the problem of controlling vehicles to drive on their desired lanes. This paper proposes a formation control method that considers vehicles' preference on different lanes. The bi-level formation control framework is utilized to plan collision-free motion for vehicles, where relative target assignment and path planning are performed in the upper level, and trajectory planning and tracking are performed in the lower level. The collision-free multi-vehicle path planning problem considering lane preference is decoupled into two sub problems: calculating assignment list with non-decreasing cost and planning collision-free paths according to given assignment result. The Conflict-based Searching (CBS) method is utilized to plan collision-free paths for vehicles based on given assignment results. Case study is conducted and simulations are carried out in a three-lane road scenario. The results indicate that the proposed formation control method significantly reduces congestion and improves traffic efficiency at high traffic volumes, compared to the rule-based method.
Instance segmentation and panoptic segmentation is being paid more and more attention in recent years. In comparison with bounding box based object detection and semantic segmentation, instance segmentation can provide more analytical results at pixel level. Given the insight that pixels belonging to one instance have one or more common attributes of current instance, we bring up an one-stage instance segmentation network named Common Attribute Support Network (CASNet), which realizes instance segmentation by predicting and clustering common attributes. CASNet is designed in the manner of fully convolutional and can implement training and inference from end to end. And CASNet manages predicting the instance without overlaps and holes, which problem exists in most of current instance segmentation algorithms. Furthermore, it can be easily extended to panoptic segmentation through minor modifications with little computation overhead. CASNet builds a bridge between semantic and instance segmentation from finding pixel class ID to obtaining class and instance ID by operations on common attribute. Through experiment for instance and panoptic segmentation, CASNet gets mAP 32.8% and PQ 59.0% on Cityscapes validation dataset by joint training, and mAP 36.3% and PQ 66.1% by separated training mode. For panoptic segmentation, CASNet gets state-of-the-art performance on the Cityscapes validation dataset.
Connected vehicles will change the modes of future transportation management and organization, especially at intersections. There are mainly two categories coordination methods at unsignalized intersection, i.e. centralized and distributed methods. Centralized coordination methods need huge computation resources since they own a centralized controller to optimize the trajectories for all approaching vehicles, while in distributed methods each approaching vehicles owns an individual controller to optimize the trajectory considering the motion information and the conflict relationship with its neighboring vehicles, which avoids huge computation but needs sophisticated manual design. In this paper, we propose a centralized conflict-free cooperation method for multiple connected vehicles at unsignalized intersection using reinforcement learning (RL) to address computation burden naturally by training offline. We firstly incorporate a prior model into proximal policy optimization (PPO) algorithm to accelerate learning process. Then we present the design of state, action and reward to formulate centralized cooperation as RL problem. Finally, we train a coordinate policy by our model-accelerated PPO (MA-PPO) in a simulation setting and analyze results. Results show that the method we propose improves the traffic efficiency of the intersection on the premise of ensuring no collision.
With the development of state-of-art deep reinforcement learning, we can efficiently tackle continuous control problems. But the deep reinforcement learning method for continuous control is based on historical data, which would make unpredicted decisions in unfamiliar scenarios. Combining deep reinforcement learning and safety based control can get good performance for self-driving and collision avoidance. In this passage, we use the Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient algorithm to implement autonomous driving without vehicles around. The vehicle can learn the driving policy in a stable and familiar environment, which is efficient and reliable. Then we use the artificial potential field to design collision avoidance algorithm with vehicles around. The path tracking method is also taken into consideration. The combination of deep reinforcement learning and safety based control performs well in most scenarios.