Recent advances in text-guided image synthesis has dramatically changed how creative professionals generate artistic and aesthetically pleasing visual assets. To fully support such creative endeavors, the process should possess the ability to: 1) iteratively edit the generations and 2) control the spatial reach of desired changes (global, local or anything in between). We formalize this pragmatic problem setting as Iterative Multi-granular Editing. While there has been substantial progress with diffusion-based models for image synthesis and editing, they are all one shot (i.e., no iterative editing capabilities) and do not naturally yield multi-granular control (i.e., covering the full spectrum of local-to-global edits). To overcome these drawbacks, we propose EMILIE: Iterative Multi-granular Image Editor. EMILIE introduces a novel latent iteration strategy, which re-purposes a pre-trained diffusion model to facilitate iterative editing. This is complemented by a gradient control operation for multi-granular control. We introduce a new benchmark dataset to evaluate our newly proposed setting. We conduct exhaustive quantitatively and qualitatively evaluation against recent state-of-the-art approaches adapted to our task, to being out the mettle of EMILIE. We hope our work would attract attention to this newly identified, pragmatic problem setting.
While recent developments in text-to-image generative models have led to a suite of high-performing methods capable of producing creative imagery from free-form text, there are several limitations. By analyzing the cross-attention representations of these models, we notice two key issues. First, for text prompts that contain multiple concepts, there is a significant amount of pixel-space overlap (i.e., same spatial regions) among pairs of different concepts. This eventually leads to the model being unable to distinguish between the two concepts and one of them being ignored in the final generation. Next, while these models attempt to capture all such concepts during the beginning of denoising (e.g., first few steps) as evidenced by cross-attention maps, this knowledge is not retained by the end of denoising (e.g., last few steps). Such loss of knowledge eventually leads to inaccurate generation outputs. To address these issues, our key innovations include two test-time attention-based loss functions that substantially improve the performance of pretrained baseline text-to-image diffusion models. First, our attention segregation loss reduces the cross-attention overlap between attention maps of different concepts in the text prompt, thereby reducing the confusion/conflict among various concepts and the eventual capture of all concepts in the generated output. Next, our attention retention loss explicitly forces text-to-image diffusion models to retain cross-attention information for all concepts across all denoising time steps, thereby leading to reduced information loss and the preservation of all concepts in the generated output.
Models pre-trained on large-scale datasets are often finetuned to support newer tasks and datasets that arrive over time. This process necessitates storing copies of the model over time for each task that the pre-trained model is finetuned to. Building on top of recent model patching work, we propose $\Delta$-Patching for finetuning neural network models in an efficient manner, without the need to store model copies. We propose a simple and lightweight method called $\Delta$-Networks to achieve this objective. Our comprehensive experiments across setting and architecture variants show that $\Delta$-Networks outperform earlier model patching work while only requiring a fraction of parameters to be trained. We also show that this approach can be used for other problem settings such as transfer learning and zero-shot domain adaptation, as well as other tasks such as detection and segmentation.
In class-incremental learning, the model is expected to learn new classes continually while maintaining knowledge on previous classes. The challenge here lies in preserving the model's ability to effectively represent prior classes in the feature space, while adapting it to represent incoming new classes. We propose two distillation-based objectives for class incremental learning that leverage the structure of the feature space to maintain accuracy on previous classes, as well as enable learning the new classes. In our first objective, termed cross-space clustering (CSC), we propose to use the feature space structure of the previous model to characterize directions of optimization that maximally preserve the class: directions that all instances of a specific class should collectively optimize towards, and those that they should collectively optimize away from. Apart from minimizing forgetting, this indirectly encourages the model to cluster all instances of a class in the current feature space, and gives rise to a sense of herd-immunity, allowing all samples of a class to jointly combat the model from forgetting the class. Our second objective termed controlled transfer (CT) tackles incremental learning from an understudied perspective of inter-class transfer. CT explicitly approximates and conditions the current model on the semantic similarities between incrementally arriving classes and prior classes. This allows the model to learn classes in such a way that it maximizes positive forward transfer from similar prior classes, thus increasing plasticity, and minimizes negative backward transfer on dissimilar prior classes, whereby strengthening stability. We perform extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets, adding our method (CSCCT) on top of three prominent class-incremental learning methods. We observe consistent performance improvement on a variety of experimental settings.
Humans possess an innate ability to identify and differentiate instances that they are not familiar with, by leveraging and adapting the knowledge that they have acquired so far. Importantly, they achieve this without deteriorating the performance on their earlier learning. Inspired by this, we identify and formulate a new, pragmatic problem setting of NCDwF: Novel Class Discovery without Forgetting, which tasks a machine learning model to incrementally discover novel categories of instances from unlabeled data, while maintaining its performance on the previously seen categories. We propose 1) a method to generate pseudo-latent representations which act as a proxy for (no longer available) labeled data, thereby alleviating forgetting, 2) a mutual-information based regularizer which enhances unsupervised discovery of novel classes, and 3) a simple Known Class Identifier which aids generalized inference when the testing data contains instances form both seen and unseen categories. We introduce experimental protocols based on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100 and ImageNet-1000 to measure the trade-off between knowledge retention and novel class discovery. Our extensive evaluations reveal that existing models catastrophically forget previously seen categories while identifying novel categories, while our method is able to effectively balance between the competing objectives. We hope our work will attract further research into this newly identified pragmatic problem setting.
Novel Class Discovery (NCD) is a learning paradigm, where a machine learning model is tasked to semantically group instances from unlabeled data, by utilizing labeled instances from a disjoint set of classes. In this work, we first characterize existing NCD approaches into single-stage and two-stage methods based on whether they require access to labeled and unlabeled data together while discovering new classes. Next, we devise a simple yet powerful loss function that enforces separability in the latent space using cues from multi-dimensional scaling, which we refer to as Spacing Loss. Our proposed formulation can either operate as a standalone method or can be plugged into existing methods to enhance them. We validate the efficacy of Spacing Loss with thorough experimental evaluation across multiple settings on CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100 datasets.
Deep learning models tend to forget their earlier knowledge while incrementally learning new tasks. This behavior emerges because the parameter updates optimized for the new tasks may not align well with the updates suitable for older tasks. The resulting latent representation mismatch causes forgetting. In this work, we propose ELI: Energy-based Latent Aligner for Incremental Learning, which first learns an energy manifold for the latent representations such that previous task latents will have low energy and the current task latents have high energy values. This learned manifold is used to counter the representational shift that happens during incremental learning. The implicit regularization that is offered by our proposed methodology can be used as a plug-and-play module in existing incremental learning methodologies. We validate this through extensive evaluation on CIFAR-100, ImageNet subset, ImageNet 1k and Pascal VOC datasets. We observe consistent improvement when ELI is added to three prominent methodologies in class-incremental learning, across multiple incremental settings. Further, when added to the state-of-the-art incremental object detector, ELI provides over 5% improvement in detection accuracy, corroborating its effectiveness and complementary advantage to existing art.
Open-world object detection (OWOD) is a challenging computer vision problem, where the task is to detect a known set of object categories while simultaneously identifying unknown objects. Additionally, the model must incrementally learn new classes that become known in the next training episodes. Distinct from standard object detection, the OWOD setting poses significant challenges for generating quality candidate proposals on potentially unknown objects, separating the unknown objects from the background and detecting diverse unknown objects. Here, we introduce a novel end-to-end transformer-based framework, OW-DETR, for open-world object detection. The proposed OW-DETR comprises three dedicated components namely, attention-driven pseudo-labeling, novelty classification and objectness scoring to explicitly address the aforementioned OWOD challenges. Our OW-DETR explicitly encodes multi-scale contextual information, possesses less inductive bias, enables knowledge transfer from known classes to the unknown class and can better discriminate between unknown objects and background. Comprehensive experiments are performed on two benchmarks: MS-COCO and PASCAL VOC. The extensive ablations reveal the merits of our proposed contributions. Further, our model outperforms the recently introduced OWOD approach, ORE, with absolute gains ranging from 1.8% to 3.3% in terms of unknown recall on the MS-COCO benchmark. In the case of incremental object detection, OW-DETR outperforms the state-of-the-art for all settings on the PASCAL VOC benchmark. Our codes and models will be publicly released.