Monocular depth estimation is known as an ill-posed task in which objects in a 2D image usually do not contain sufficient information to predict their depth. Thus, it acts differently from other tasks (e.g., classification and segmentation) in many ways. In this paper, we find that self-supervised monocular depth estimation shows a direction sensitivity and environmental dependency in the feature representation. But the current backbones borrowed from other tasks pay less attention to handling different types of environmental information, limiting the overall depth accuracy. To bridge this gap, we propose a new Direction-aware Cumulative Convolution Network (DaCCN), which improves the depth feature representation in two aspects. First, we propose a direction-aware module, which can learn to adjust the feature extraction in each direction, facilitating the encoding of different types of information. Secondly, we design a new cumulative convolution to improve the efficiency for aggregating important environmental information. Experiments show that our method achieves significant improvements on three widely used benchmarks, KITTI, Cityscapes, and Make3D, setting a new state-of-the-art performance on the popular benchmarks with all three types of self-supervision.
This paper addresses the problem of 3D referring expression comprehension (REC) in autonomous driving scenario, which aims to ground a natural language to the targeted region in LiDAR point clouds. Previous approaches for REC usually focus on the 2D or 3D-indoor domain, which is not suitable for accurately predicting the location of the queried 3D region in an autonomous driving scene. In addition, the upper-bound limitation and the heavy computation cost motivate us to explore a better solution. In this work, we propose a new multi-modal visual grounding task, termed LiDAR Grounding. Then we devise a Multi-modal Single Shot Grounding (MSSG) approach with an effective token fusion strategy. It jointly learns the LiDAR-based object detector with the language features and predicts the targeted region directly from the detector without any post-processing. Moreover, the image feature can be flexibly integrated into our approach to provide rich texture and color information. The cross-modal learning enforces the detector to concentrate on important regions in the point cloud by considering the informative language expressions, thus leading to much better accuracy and efficiency. Extensive experiments on the Talk2Car dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Our work offers a deeper insight into the LiDAR-based grounding task and we expect it presents a promising direction for the autonomous driving community.
Image instance segmentation is a fundamental research topic in autonomous driving, which is crucial for scene understanding and road safety. Advanced learning-based approaches often rely on the costly 2D mask annotations for training. In this paper, we present a more artful framework, LiDAR-guided Weakly Supervised Instance Segmentation (LWSIS), which leverages the off-the-shelf 3D data, i.e., Point Cloud, together with the 3D boxes, as natural weak supervisions for training the 2D image instance segmentation models. Our LWSIS not only exploits the complementary information in multimodal data during training, but also significantly reduces the annotation cost of the dense 2D masks. In detail, LWSIS consists of two crucial modules, Point Label Assignment (PLA) and Graph-based Consistency Regularization (GCR). The former module aims to automatically assign the 3D point cloud as 2D point-wise labels, while the latter further refines the predictions by enforcing geometry and appearance consistency of the multimodal data. Moreover, we conduct a secondary instance segmentation annotation on the nuScenes, named nuInsSeg, to encourage further research on multimodal perception tasks. Extensive experiments on the nuInsSeg, as well as the large-scale Waymo, show that LWSIS can substantially improve existing weakly supervised segmentation models by only involving 3D data during training. Additionally, LWSIS can also be incorporated into 3D object detectors like PointPainting to boost the 3D detection performance for free. The code and dataset are available at https://github.com/Serenos/LWSIS.
LiDAR-based 3D object detection is an indispensable task in advanced autonomous driving systems. Though impressive detection results have been achieved by superior 3D detectors, they suffer from significant performance degeneration when facing unseen domains, such as different LiDAR configurations, different cities, and weather conditions. The mainstream approaches tend to solve these challenges by leveraging unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) techniques. However, these UDA solutions just yield unsatisfactory 3D detection results when there is a severe domain shift, e.g., from Waymo (64-beam) to nuScenes (32-beam). To address this, we present a novel Semi-Supervised Domain Adaptation method for 3D object detection (SSDA3D), where only a few labeled target data is available, yet can significantly improve the adaptation performance. In particular, our SSDA3D includes an Inter-domain Adaptation stage and an Intra-domain Generalization stage. In the first stage, an Inter-domain Point-CutMix module is presented to efficiently align the point cloud distribution across domains. The Point-CutMix generates mixed samples of an intermediate domain, thus encouraging to learn domain-invariant knowledge. Then, in the second stage, we further enhance the model for better generalization on the unlabeled target set. This is achieved by exploring Intra-domain Point-MixUp in semi-supervised learning, which essentially regularizes the pseudo label distribution. Experiments from Waymo to nuScenes show that, with only 10% labeled target data, our SSDA3D can surpass the fully-supervised oracle model with 100% target label. Our code is available at https://github.com/yinjunbo/SSDA3D.
Previous works for LiDAR-based 3D object detection mainly focus on the single-frame paradigm. In this paper, we propose to detect 3D objects by exploiting temporal information in multiple frames, i.e., the point cloud videos. We empirically categorize the temporal information into short-term and long-term patterns. To encode the short-term data, we present a Grid Message Passing Network (GMPNet), which considers each grid (i.e., the grouped points) as a node and constructs a k-NN graph with the neighbor grids. To update features for a grid, GMPNet iteratively collects information from its neighbors, thus mining the motion cues in grids from nearby frames. To further aggregate the long-term frames, we propose an Attentive Spatiotemporal Transformer GRU (AST-GRU), which contains a Spatial Transformer Attention (STA) module and a Temporal Transformer Attention (TTA) module. STA and TTA enhance the vanilla GRU to focus on small objects and better align the moving objects. Our overall framework supports both online and offline video object detection in point clouds. We implement our algorithm based on prevalent anchor-based and anchor-free detectors. The evaluation results on the challenging nuScenes benchmark show the superior performance of our method, achieving the 1st on the leaderboard without any bells and whistles, by the time the paper is submitted.
Dominated point cloud-based 3D object detectors in autonomous driving scenarios rely heavily on the huge amount of accurately labeled samples, however, 3D annotation in the point cloud is extremely tedious, expensive and time-consuming. To reduce the dependence on large supervision, semi-supervised learning (SSL) based approaches have been proposed. The Pseudo-Labeling methodology is commonly used for SSL frameworks, however, the low-quality predictions from the teacher model have seriously limited its performance. In this work, we propose a new Pseudo-Labeling framework for semi-supervised 3D object detection, by enhancing the teacher model to a proficient one with several necessary designs. First, to improve the recall of pseudo labels, a Spatialtemporal Ensemble (STE) module is proposed to generate sufficient seed boxes. Second, to improve the precision of recalled boxes, a Clusteringbased Box Voting (CBV) module is designed to get aggregated votes from the clustered seed boxes. This also eliminates the necessity of sophisticated thresholds to select pseudo labels. Furthermore, to reduce the negative influence of wrongly pseudo-labeled samples during the training, a soft supervision signal is proposed by considering Box-wise Contrastive Learning (BCL). The effectiveness of our model is verified on both ONCE and Waymo datasets. For example, on ONCE, our approach significantly improves the baseline by 9.51 mAP. Moreover, with half annotations, our model outperforms the oracle model with full annotations on Waymo.
Existing approaches for unsupervised point cloud pre-training are constrained to either scene-level or point/voxel-level instance discrimination. Scene-level methods tend to lose local details that are crucial for recognizing the road objects, while point/voxel-level methods inherently suffer from limited receptive field that is incapable of perceiving large objects or context environments. Considering region-level representations are more suitable for 3D object detection, we devise a new unsupervised point cloud pre-training framework, called ProposalContrast, that learns robust 3D representations by contrasting region proposals. Specifically, with an exhaustive set of region proposals sampled from each point cloud, geometric point relations within each proposal are modeled for creating expressive proposal representations. To better accommodate 3D detection properties, ProposalContrast optimizes with both inter-cluster and inter-proposal separation, i.e., sharpening the discriminativeness of proposal representations across semantic classes and object instances. The generalizability and transferability of ProposalContrast are verified on various 3D detectors (i.e., PV-RCNN, CenterPoint, PointPillars and PointRCNN) and datasets (i.e., KITTI, Waymo and ONCE).
Accurate detection of obstacles in 3D is an essential task for autonomous driving and intelligent transportation. In this work, we propose a general multimodal fusion framework FusionPainting to fuse the 2D RGB image and 3D point clouds at a semantic level for boosting the 3D object detection task. Especially, the FusionPainting framework consists of three main modules: a multi-modal semantic segmentation module, an adaptive attention-based semantic fusion module, and a 3D object detector. First, semantic information is obtained for 2D images and 3D Lidar point clouds based on 2D and 3D segmentation approaches. Then the segmentation results from different sensors are adaptively fused based on the proposed attention-based semantic fusion module. Finally, the point clouds painted with the fused semantic label are sent to the 3D detector for obtaining the 3D objection results. The effectiveness of the proposed framework has been verified on the large-scale nuScenes detection benchmark by comparing it with three different baselines. The experimental results show that the fusion strategy can significantly improve the detection performance compared to the methods using only point clouds, and the methods using point clouds only painted with 2D segmentation information. Furthermore, the proposed approach outperforms other state-of-the-art methods on the nuScenes testing benchmark.
3D object detection from a single image is an important task in Autonomous Driving (AD), where various approaches have been proposed. However, the task is intrinsically ambiguous and challenging as single image depth estimation is already an ill-posed problem. In this paper, we propose an instance-aware approach to aggregate useful information for improving the accuracy of 3D object detection with the following contributions. First, an instance-aware feature aggregation (IAFA) module is proposed to collect local and global features for 3D bounding boxes regression. Second, we empirically find that the spatial attention module can be well learned by taking coarse-level instance annotations as a supervision signal. The proposed module has significantly boosted the performance of the baseline method on both 3D detection and 2D bird-eye's view of vehicle detection among all three categories. Third, our proposed method outperforms all single image-based approaches (even these methods trained with depth as auxiliary inputs) and achieves state-of-the-art 3D detection performance on the KITTI benchmark.
Existing LiDAR-based 3D object detectors usually focus on the single-frame detection, while ignoring the spatiotemporal information in consecutive point cloud frames. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end online 3D video object detector that operates on point cloud sequences. The proposed model comprises a spatial feature encoding component and a spatiotemporal feature aggregation component. In the former component, a novel Pillar Message Passing Network (PMPNet) is proposed to encode each discrete point cloud frame. It adaptively collects information for a pillar node from its neighbors by iterative message passing, which effectively enlarges the receptive field of the pillar feature. In the latter component, we propose an Attentive Spatiotemporal Transformer GRU (AST-GRU) to aggregate the spatiotemporal information, which enhances the conventional ConvGRU with an attentive memory gating mechanism. AST-GRU contains a Spatial Transformer Attention (STA) module and a Temporal Transformer Attention (TTA) module, which can emphasize the foreground objects and align the dynamic objects, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed 3D video object detector achieves state-of-the-art performance on the large-scale nuScenes benchmark.