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Liyang Zhu, Meng Ding, Vaneet Aggarwal, Jinhui Xu, Di Wang

In this paper, we revisit the problem of sparse linear regression in the local differential privacy (LDP) model. Existing research in the non-interactive and sequentially local models has focused on obtaining the lower bounds for the case where the underlying parameter is $1$-sparse, and extending such bounds to the more general $k$-sparse case has proven to be challenging. Moreover, it is unclear whether efficient non-interactive LDP (NLDP) algorithms exist. To address these issues, we first consider the problem in the $\epsilon$ non-interactive LDP model and provide a lower bound of $\Omega(\frac{\sqrt{dk\log d}}{\sqrt{n}\epsilon})$ on the $\ell_2$-norm estimation error for sub-Gaussian data, where $n$ is the sample size and $d$ is the dimension of the space. We propose an innovative NLDP algorithm, the very first of its kind for the problem. As a remarkable outcome, this algorithm also yields a novel and highly efficient estimator as a valuable by-product. Our algorithm achieves an upper bound of $\tilde{O}({\frac{d\sqrt{k}}{\sqrt{n}\epsilon}})$ for the estimation error when the data is sub-Gaussian, which can be further improved by a factor of $O(\sqrt{d})$ if the server has additional public but unlabeled data. For the sequentially interactive LDP model, we show a similar lower bound of $\Omega({\frac{\sqrt{dk}}{\sqrt{n}\epsilon}})$. As for the upper bound, we rectify a previous method and show that it is possible to achieve a bound of $\tilde{O}(\frac{k\sqrt{d}}{\sqrt{n}\epsilon})$. Our findings reveal fundamental differences between the non-private case, central DP model, and local DP model in the sparse linear regression problem.

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Yufan Zhou, Ruiyi Zhang, Tong Sun, Jinhui Xu

Recent text-to-image generation models have demonstrated impressive capability of generating text-aligned images with high fidelity. However, generating images of novel concept provided by the user input image is still a challenging task. To address this problem, researchers have been exploring various methods for customizing pre-trained text-to-image generation models. Currently, most existing methods for customizing pre-trained text-to-image generation models involve the use of regularization techniques to prevent over-fitting. While regularization will ease the challenge of customization and leads to successful content creation with respect to text guidance, it may restrict the model capability, resulting in the loss of detailed information and inferior performance. In this work, we propose a novel framework for customized text-to-image generation without the use of regularization. Specifically, our proposed framework consists of an encoder network and a novel sampling method which can tackle the over-fitting problem without the use of regularization. With the proposed framework, we are able to customize a large-scale text-to-image generation model within half a minute on single GPU, with only one image provided by the user. We demonstrate in experiments that our proposed framework outperforms existing methods, and preserves more fine-grained details.

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Yufan Zhou, Bingchen Liu, Yizhe Zhu, Xiao Yang, Changyou Chen, Jinhui Xu

We present Corgi, a novel method for text-to-image generation. Corgi is based on our proposed shifted diffusion model, which achieves better image embedding generation from input text. Unlike the baseline diffusion model used in DALL-E 2, our method seamlessly encodes prior knowledge of the pre-trained CLIP model in its diffusion process by designing a new initialization distribution and a new transition step of the diffusion. Compared to the strong DALL-E 2 baseline, our method performs better in generating image embedding from the text in terms of both efficiency and effectiveness, resulting in better text-to-image generation. Extensive large-scale experiments are conducted and evaluated in terms of both quantitative measures and human evaluation, indicating a stronger generation ability of our method compared to existing ones. Furthermore, our model enables semi-supervised and language-free training for text-to-image generation, where only part or none of the images in the training dataset have an associated caption. Trained with only 1.7% of the images being captioned, our semi-supervised model obtains FID results comparable to DALL-E 2 on zero-shot text-to-image generation evaluated on MS-COCO. Corgi also achieves new state-of-the-art results across different datasets on downstream language-free text-to-image generation tasks, outperforming the previous method, Lafite, by a large margin.

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Yufan Zhou, Chunyuan Li, Changyou Chen, Jianfeng Gao, Jinhui Xu

Text-to-image generation models have progressed considerably in recent years, which can now generate impressive realistic images from arbitrary text. Most of such models are trained on web-scale image-text paired datasets, which may not be affordable for many researchers. In this paper, we propose a novel method for pre-training text-to-image generation model on image-only datasets. It considers a retrieval-then-optimization procedure to synthesize pseudo text features: for a given image, relevant pseudo text features are first retrieved, then optimized for better alignment. The low requirement of the proposed method yields high flexibility and usability: it can be beneficial to a wide range of settings, including the few-shot, semi-supervised and fully-supervised learning; it can be applied on different models including generative adversarial networks (GANs) and diffusion models. Extensive experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. On MS-COCO dataset, our GAN model obtains Fr\'echet Inception Distance (FID) of 6.78 which is the new state-of-the-art (SoTA) of GANs under fully-supervised setting. Our diffusion model obtains FID of 8.42 and 4.28 on zero-shot and supervised setting respectively, which are competitive to SoTA diffusion models with a much smaller model size.

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Meng Ding, Mingxi Lei, Yunwen Lei, Di Wang, Jinhui Xu

(Stochastic) bilevel optimization is a frequently encountered problem in machine learning with a wide range of applications such as meta-learning, hyper-parameter optimization, and reinforcement learning. Most of the existing studies on this problem only focused on analyzing the convergence or improving the convergence rate, while little effort has been devoted to understanding its generalization behaviors. In this paper, we conduct a thorough analysis on the generalization of first-order (gradient-based) methods for the bilevel optimization problem. We first establish a fundamental connection between algorithmic stability and generalization error in different forms and give a high probability generalization bound which improves the previous best one from $\bigO(\sqrt{n})$ to $\bigO(\log n)$, where $n$ is the sample size. We then provide the first stability bounds for the general case where both inner and outer level parameters are subject to continuous update, while existing work allows only the outer level parameter to be updated. Our analysis can be applied in various standard settings such as strongly-convex-strongly-convex (SC-SC), convex-convex (C-C), and nonconvex-nonconvex (NC-NC). Our analysis for the NC-NC setting can also be extended to a particular nonconvex-strongly-convex (NC-SC) setting that is commonly encountered in practice. Finally, we corroborate our theoretical analysis and demonstrate how iterations can affect the generalization error by experiments on meta-learning and hyper-parameter optimization.

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Jinyan Su, Jinhui Xu, Di Wang

In this paper, we study the problem of PAC learning halfspaces in the non-interactive local differential privacy model (NLDP). To breach the barrier of exponential sample complexity, previous results studied a relaxed setting where the server has access to some additional public but unlabeled data. We continue in this direction. Specifically, we consider the problem under the standard setting instead of the large margin setting studied before. Under different mild assumptions on the underlying data distribution, we propose two approaches that are based on the Massart noise model and self-supervised learning and show that it is possible to achieve sample complexities that are only linear in the dimension and polynomial in other terms for both private and public data, which significantly improve the previous results. Our methods could also be used for other private PAC learning problems.

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Chunwei Ma, Zhanghexuan Ji, Ziyun Huang, Yan Shen, Mingchen Gao, Jinhui Xu

Exemplar-free Class-incremental Learning (CIL) is a challenging problem because rehearsing data from previous phases is strictly prohibited, causing catastrophic forgetting of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). In this paper, we present iVoro, a holistic framework for CIL, derived from computational geometry. We found Voronoi Diagram (VD), a classical model for space subdivision, is especially powerful for solving the CIL problem, because VD itself can be constructed favorably in an incremental manner -- the newly added sites (classes) will only affect the proximate classes, making the non-contiguous classes hardly forgettable. Further, in order to find a better set of centers for VD construction, we colligate DNN with VD using Power Diagram and show that the VD structure can be optimized by integrating local DNN models using a divide-and-conquer algorithm. Moreover, our VD construction is not restricted to the deep feature space, but is also applicable to multiple intermediate feature spaces, promoting VD to be multi-centered VD (CIVD) that efficiently captures multi-grained features from DNN. Importantly, iVoro is also capable of handling uncertainty-aware test-time Voronoi cell assignment and has exhibited high correlations between geometric uncertainty and predictive accuracy (up to ~0.9). Putting everything together, iVoro achieves up to 25.26%, 37.09%, and 33.21% improvements on CIFAR-100, TinyImageNet, and ImageNet-Subset, respectively, compared to the state-of-the-art non-exemplar CIL approaches. In conclusion, iVoro enables highly accurate, privacy-preserving, and geometrically interpretable CIL that is particularly useful when cross-phase data sharing is forbidden, e.g. in medical applications. Our code is available at https://machunwei.github.io/ivoro.

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Chunwei Ma, Ziyun Huang, Mingchen Gao, Jinhui Xu

Few-shot learning (FSL) is the process of rapid generalization from abundant base samples to inadequate novel samples. Despite extensive research in recent years, FSL is still not yet able to generate satisfactory solutions for a wide range of real-world applications. To confront this challenge, we study the FSL problem from a geometric point of view in this paper. One observation is that the widely embraced ProtoNet model is essentially a Voronoi Diagram (VD) in the feature space. We retrofit it by making use of a recent advance in computational geometry called Cluster-induced Voronoi Diagram (CIVD). Starting from the simplest nearest neighbor model, CIVD gradually incorporates cluster-to-point and then cluster-to-cluster relationships for space subdivision, which is used to improve the accuracy and robustness at multiple stages of FSL. Specifically, we use CIVD (1) to integrate parametric and nonparametric few-shot classifiers; (2) to combine feature representation and surrogate representation; (3) and to leverage feature-level, transformation-level, and geometry-level heterogeneities for a better ensemble. Our CIVD-based workflow enables us to achieve new state-of-the-art results on mini-ImageNet, CUB, and tiered-ImagenNet datasets, with ${\sim}2\%{-}5\%$ improvements upon the next best. To summarize, CIVD provides a mathematically elegant and geometrically interpretable framework that compensates for extreme data insufficiency, prevents overfitting, and allows for fast geometric ensemble for thousands of individual VD. These together make FSL stronger.

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Di Wang, Jinhui Xu

We study the problem of Differentially Private Stochastic Convex Optimization (DP-SCO) with heavy-tailed data. Specifically, we focus on the $\ell_1$-norm linear regression in the $\epsilon$-DP model. While most of the previous work focuses on the case where the loss function is Lipschitz, here we only need to assume the variates has bounded moments. Firstly, we study the case where the $\ell_2$ norm of data has bounded second order moment. We propose an algorithm which is based on the exponential mechanism and show that it is possible to achieve an upper bound of $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{\frac{d}{n\epsilon}})$ (with high probability). Next, we relax the assumption to bounded $\theta$-th order moment with some $\theta\in (1, 2)$ and show that it is possible to achieve an upper bound of $\tilde{O}(({\frac{d}{n\epsilon}})^\frac{\theta-1}{\theta})$. Our algorithms can also be extended to more relaxed cases where only each coordinate of the data has bounded moments, and we can get an upper bound of $\tilde{O}({\frac{d}{\sqrt{n\epsilon}}})$ and $\tilde{O}({\frac{d}{({n\epsilon})^\frac{\theta-1}{\theta}}})$ in the second and $\theta$-th moment case respectively.

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Yufan Zhou, Ruiyi Zhang, Changyou Chen, Chunyuan Li, Chris Tensmeyer, Tong Yu, Jiuxiang Gu, Jinhui Xu, Tong Sun

One of the major challenges in training text-to-image generation models is the need of a large number of high-quality image-text pairs. While image samples are often easily accessible, the associated text descriptions typically require careful human captioning, which is particularly time- and cost-consuming. In this paper, we propose the first work to train text-to-image generation models without any text data. Our method leverages the well-aligned multi-modal semantic space of the powerful pre-trained CLIP model: the requirement of text-conditioning is seamlessly alleviated via generating text features from image features. Extensive experiments are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. We obtain state-of-the-art results in the standard text-to-image generation tasks. Importantly, the proposed language-free model outperforms most existing models trained with full image-text pairs. Furthermore, our method can be applied in fine-tuning pre-trained models, which saves both training time and cost in training text-to-image generation models. Our pre-trained model obtains competitive results in zero-shot text-to-image generation on the MS-COCO dataset, yet with around only 1% of the model size and training data size relative to the recently proposed large DALL-E model.

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