Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Abstract:For the problem of reconstructing a low-rank matrix from a few linear measurements, two classes of algorithms have been widely studied in the literature: convex approaches based on nuclear norm minimization, and non-convex approaches that use factorized gradient descent. Under certain statistical model assumptions, it is known that nuclear norm minimization recovers the ground truth as soon as the number of samples scales linearly with the number of degrees of freedom of the ground-truth. In contrast, while non-convex approaches are computationally less expensive, existing recovery guarantees assume that the number of samples scales at least quadratically with the rank $r$ of the ground-truth matrix. In this paper, we close this gap by showing that the non-convex approaches can be as efficient as nuclear norm minimization in terms of sample complexity. Namely, we consider the problem of reconstructing a positive semidefinite matrix from a few Gaussian measurements. We show that factorized gradient descent with spectral initialization converges to the ground truth with a linear rate as soon as the number of samples scales with $ \Omega (rd\kappa^2)$, where $d$ is the dimension, and $\kappa$ is the condition number of the ground truth matrix. This improves the previous rank-dependence from quadratic to linear. Our proof relies on a probabilistic decoupling argument, where we show that the gradient descent iterates are only weakly dependent on the individual entries of the measurement matrices. We expect that our proof technique is of independent interest for other non-convex problems.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Kernel ridge regression (KRR) is a popular class of machine learning models that has become an important tool for understanding deep learning. Much of the focus has been on studying the proportional asymptotic regime, $n \asymp d$, where $n$ is the number of training samples and $d$ is the dimension of the dataset. In this regime, under certain conditions on the data distribution, the kernel random matrix involved in KRR exhibits behavior akin to that of a linear kernel. In this work, we extend the study of kernel regression to the quadratic asymptotic regime, where $n \asymp d^2$. In this regime, we demonstrate that a broad class of inner-product kernels exhibit behavior similar to a quadratic kernel. Specifically, we establish an operator norm approximation bound for the difference between the original kernel random matrix and a quadratic kernel random matrix with additional correction terms compared to the Taylor expansion of the kernel functions. The approximation works for general data distributions under a Gaussian-moment-matching assumption with a covariance structure. This new approximation is utilized to obtain a limiting spectral distribution of the original kernel matrix and characterize the precise asymptotic training and generalization errors for KRR in the quadratic regime when $n/d^2$ converges to a non-zero constant. The generalization errors are obtained for both deterministic and random teacher models. Our proof techniques combine moment methods, Wick's formula, orthogonal polynomials, and resolvent analysis of random matrices with correlated entries.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:In this paper, we present MoMA: an open-vocabulary, training-free personalized image model that boasts flexible zero-shot capabilities. As foundational text-to-image models rapidly evolve, the demand for robust image-to-image translation grows. Addressing this need, MoMA specializes in subject-driven personalized image generation. Utilizing an open-source, Multimodal Large Language Model (MLLM), we train MoMA to serve a dual role as both a feature extractor and a generator. This approach effectively synergizes reference image and text prompt information to produce valuable image features, facilitating an image diffusion model. To better leverage the generated features, we further introduce a novel self-attention shortcut method that efficiently transfers image features to an image diffusion model, improving the resemblance of the target object in generated images. Remarkably, as a tuning-free plug-and-play module, our model requires only a single reference image and outperforms existing methods in generating images with high detail fidelity, enhanced identity-preservation and prompt faithfulness. Our work is open-source, thereby providing universal access to these advancements.

Via

Abstract:We present a polynomial-time algorithm for online differentially private synthetic data generation. For a data stream within the hypercube $[0,1]^d$ and an infinite time horizon, we develop an online algorithm that generates a differentially private synthetic dataset at each time $t$. This algorithm achieves a near-optimal accuracy bound of $O(t^{-1/d}\log(t))$ for $d\geq 2$ and $O(t^{-1}\log^{4.5}(t))$ for $d=1$ in the 1-Wasserstein distance. This result generalizes the previous work on the continual release model for counting queries to include Lipschitz queries. Compared to the offline case, where the entire dataset is available at once, our approach requires only an extra polylog factor in the accuracy bound.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Tensor completion is a core machine learning algorithm used in recommender systems and other domains with missing data. While the matrix case is well-understood, theoretical results for tensor problems are limited, particularly when the sampling patterns are deterministic. Here we bound the generalization error of the solutions of two tensor completion methods, Poisson loss and atomic norm minimization, providing tighter bounds in terms of the target tensor rank. If the ground-truth tensor is order $t$ with CP-rank $r$, the dependence on $r$ is improved from $r^{2(t-1)(t^2-t-1)}$ in arXiv:1910.10692 to $r^{2(t-1)(3t-5)}$. The error in our bounds is deterministically controlled by the spectral gap of the sampling sparsity pattern. We also prove several new properties for the atomic tensor norm, reducing the rank dependence from $r^{3t-3}$ in arXiv:1711.04965 to $r^{3t-5}$ under random sampling schemes. A limitation is that atomic norm minimization, while theoretically interesting, leads to inefficient algorithms. However, numerical experiments illustrate the dependence of the reconstruction error on the spectral gap for the practical max-quasinorm, ridge penalty, and Poisson loss minimization algorithms. This view through the spectral gap is a promising window for further study of tensor algorithms.

Via

Abstract:Differentially private synthetic data provide a powerful mechanism to enable data analysis while protecting sensitive information about individuals. However, when the data lie in a high-dimensional space, the accuracy of the synthetic data suffers from the curse of dimensionality. In this paper, we propose a differentially private algorithm to generate low-dimensional synthetic data efficiently from a high-dimensional dataset with a utility guarantee with respect to the Wasserstein distance. A key step of our algorithm is a private principal component analysis (PCA) procedure with a near-optimal accuracy bound that circumvents the curse of dimensionality. Different from the standard perturbation analysis using the Davis-Kahan theorem, our analysis of private PCA works without assuming the spectral gap for the sample covariance matrix.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:We present Corgi, a novel method for text-to-image generation. Corgi is based on our proposed shifted diffusion model, which achieves better image embedding generation from input text. Unlike the baseline diffusion model used in DALL-E 2, our method seamlessly encodes prior knowledge of the pre-trained CLIP model in its diffusion process by designing a new initialization distribution and a new transition step of the diffusion. Compared to the strong DALL-E 2 baseline, our method performs better in generating image embedding from the text in terms of both efficiency and effectiveness, resulting in better text-to-image generation. Extensive large-scale experiments are conducted and evaluated in terms of both quantitative measures and human evaluation, indicating a stronger generation ability of our method compared to existing ones. Furthermore, our model enables semi-supervised and language-free training for text-to-image generation, where only part or none of the images in the training dataset have an associated caption. Trained with only 1.7% of the images being captioned, our semi-supervised model obtains FID results comparable to DALL-E 2 on zero-shot text-to-image generation evaluated on MS-COCO. Corgi also achieves new state-of-the-art results across different datasets on downstream language-free text-to-image generation tasks, outperforming the previous method, Lafite, by a large margin.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:We present an efficient text-to-video generation framework based on latent diffusion models, termed MagicVideo. Given a text description, MagicVideo can generate photo-realistic video clips with high relevance to the text content. With the proposed efficient latent 3D U-Net design, MagicVideo can generate video clips with 256x256 spatial resolution on a single GPU card, which is 64x faster than the recent video diffusion model (VDM). Unlike previous works that train video generation from scratch in the RGB space, we propose to generate video clips in a low-dimensional latent space. We further utilize all the convolution operator weights of pre-trained text-to-image generative U-Net models for faster training. To achieve this, we introduce two new designs to adapt the U-Net decoder to video data: a framewise lightweight adaptor for the image-to-video distribution adjustment and a directed temporal attention module to capture frame temporal dependencies. The whole generation process is within the low-dimension latent space of a pre-trained variation auto-encoder. We demonstrate that MagicVideo can generate both realistic video content and imaginary content in a photo-realistic style with a trade-off in terms of quality and computational cost. Refer to https://magicvideo.github.io/# for more examples.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:We consider the random feature ridge regression (RFRR) given by a two-layer neural network at random initialization. We study the non-asymptotic behaviors of the training error, cross-validations, and generalization error of RFRR with nearly orthogonal deterministic input data in the overparameterized regime, where the number of parameters $N$ is much larger than the sample size $n$. We respectively establish the concentrations of the training errors, cross-validations, and generalization errors of RFRR around their corresponding errors of kernel ridge regression (KRR). This KRR is defined by an expected kernel from a random feature map. We then approximate the performances of the KRR by a polynomial kernel matrix, whose degree only depends on the orthogonality among different input vectors. The degree of this polynomial kernel essentially determines the asymptotic behavior of RFRR and KRR. Our results hold for a general class of target functions and input data with weak approximate orthonormal properties among different data points. Based on these approximations and nearly orthogonality, we obtain a lower bound for the generalization error of RFRR.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:We consider the community detection problem in a sparse $q$-uniform hypergraph $G$, assuming that $G$ is generated according to the so-called Hypergraph Stochastic Block Model (HSBM). We prove that a spectral method based on the non-backtracking operator for hypergraphs works with high probability down to the generalized Kesten-Stigum detection threshold conjectured by Angelini et al. We characterize the spectrum of the non-backtracking operator for the sparse HSBM, and provide an efficient dimension reduction procedure using the Ihara-Bass formula for hypergraphs. As a result, community detection for the sparse HSBM on $n$ vertices can be reduced to an eigenvector problem of a $2n\times 2n$ non-normal matrix constructed from the adjacency matrix and the degree matrix of the hypergraph. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first provable and efficient spectral algorithm that achieves the conjectured threshold for HSBMs with $k$ blocks generated according to a general symmetric probability tensor.

Via