Pre-training methods with contrastive learning objectives have shown remarkable success in dialog understanding tasks. However, current contrastive learning solely considers the self-augmented dialog samples as positive samples and treats all other dialog samples as negative ones, which enforces dissimilar representations even for dialogs that are semantically related. In this paper, we propose SPACE-2, a tree-structured pre-trained conversation model, which learns dialog representations from limited labeled dialogs and large-scale unlabeled dialog corpora via semi-supervised contrastive pre-training. Concretely, we first define a general semantic tree structure (STS) to unify the inconsistent annotation schema across different dialog datasets, so that the rich structural information stored in all labeled data can be exploited. Then we propose a novel multi-view score function to increase the relevance of all possible dialogs that share similar STSs and only push away other completely different dialogs during supervised contrastive pre-training. To fully exploit unlabeled dialogs, a basic self-supervised contrastive loss is also added to refine the learned representations. Experiments show that our method can achieve new state-of-the-art results on the DialoGLUE benchmark consisting of seven datasets and four popular dialog understanding tasks. For reproducibility, we release the code and data at https://github.com/AlibabaResearch/DAMO-ConvAI/tree/main/space-2.
The development of personalized recommendation has significantly improved the accuracy of information matching and the revenue of e-commerce platforms. Recently, it has 2 trends: 1) recommender systems must be trained timely to cope with ever-growing new products and ever-changing user interests from online marketing and social network; 2) SOTA recommendation models introduce DNN modules to improve prediction accuracy. Traditional CPU-based recommender systems cannot meet these two trends, and GPU- centric training has become a trending approach. However, we observe that GPU devices in training recommender systems are underutilized, and they cannot attain an expected throughput improvement as what it has achieved in CV and NLP areas. This issue can be explained by two characteristics of these recommendation models: First, they contain up to a thousand input feature fields, introducing fragmentary and memory-intensive operations; Second, the multiple constituent feature interaction submodules introduce substantial small-sized compute kernels. To remove this roadblock to the development of recommender systems, we propose a novel framework named PICASSO to accelerate the training of recommendation models on commodity hardware. Specifically, we conduct a systematic analysis to reveal the bottlenecks encountered in training recommendation models. We leverage the model structure and data distribution to unleash the potential of hardware through our packing, interleaving, and caching optimization. Experiments show that PICASSO increases the hardware utilization by an order of magnitude on the basis of SOTA baselines and brings up to 6x throughput improvement for a variety of industrial recommendation models. Using the same hardware budget in production, PICASSO on average shortens the walltime of daily training tasks by 7 hours, significantly reducing the delay of continuous delivery.