Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Authors:Moussa Koulako Bala Doumbouya, Ananjan Nandi, Gabriel Poesia, Davide Ghilardi, Anna Goldie, Federico Bianchi, Dan Jurafsky, Christopher D. Manning

Abstract:The safety of Large Language Models (LLMs) remains a critical concern due to a lack of adequate benchmarks for systematically evaluating their ability to resist generating harmful content. Previous efforts towards automated red teaming involve static or templated sets of illicit requests and adversarial prompts which have limited utility given jailbreak attacks' evolving and composable nature. We propose a novel dynamic benchmark of composable jailbreak attacks to move beyond static datasets and taxonomies of attacks and harms. Our approach consists of three components collectively called h4rm3l: (1) a domain-specific language that formally expresses jailbreak attacks as compositions of parameterized prompt transformation primitives, (2) bandit-based few-shot program synthesis algorithms that generate novel attacks optimized to penetrate the safety filters of a target black box LLM, and (3) open-source automated red-teaming software employing the previous two components. We use h4rm3l to generate a dataset of 2656 successful novel jailbreak attacks targeting 6 state-of-the-art (SOTA) open-source and proprietary LLMs. Several of our synthesized attacks are more effective than previously reported ones, with Attack Success Rates exceeding 90% on SOTA closed language models such as claude-3-haiku and GPT4-o. By generating datasets of jailbreak attacks in a unified formal representation, h4rm3l enables reproducible benchmarking and automated red-teaming, contributes to understanding LLM safety limitations, and supports the development of robust defenses in an increasingly LLM-integrated world. Warning: This paper and related research artifacts contain offensive and potentially disturbing prompts and model-generated content.

Via

Abstract:Mathematical problem solving is an important skill for Large Language Models (LLMs), both as an important capability and a proxy for a range of reasoning abilities. Existing benchmarks probe a diverse set of skills, but they yield aggregate accuracy metrics, obscuring specific abilities or weaknesses. Furthermore, they are difficult to extend with new problems, risking data contamination over time. To address these challenges, we propose MathCAMPS: a method to synthesize high-quality mathematical problems at scale, grounded on 44 fine-grained "standards" from the Mathematics Common Core (CC) Standard for K-8 grades. We encode each standard in a formal grammar, allowing us to sample diverse symbolic problems and their answers. We then use LLMs to realize the symbolic problems into word problems. We propose a cycle-consistency method for validating problem faithfulness. Finally, we derive follow-up questions from symbolic structures and convert them into follow-up word problems - a novel task of mathematical dialogue that probes for robustness in understanding. Experiments on 23 LLMs show surprising failures even in the strongest models (in particular when asked simple follow-up questions). Moreover, we evaluate training checkpoints of Pythia 12B on MathCAMPS, allowing us to analyze when particular mathematical skills develop during its training. Our framework enables the community to reproduce and extend our pipeline for a fraction of the typical cost of building new high-quality datasets.

Via

Abstract:How did humanity coax mathematics from the aether? We explore the Platonic view that mathematics can be discovered from its axioms - a game of conjecture and proof. We describe Minimo (Mathematics from Intrinsic Motivation): an agent that jointly learns to pose challenging problems for itself (conjecturing) and solve them (theorem proving). Given a mathematical domain axiomatized in dependent type theory, we first combine methods for constrained decoding and type-directed synthesis to sample valid conjectures from a language model. Our method guarantees well-formed conjectures by construction, even as we start with a randomly initialized model. We use the same model to represent a policy and value function for guiding proof search. Our agent targets generating hard but provable conjectures - a moving target, since its own theorem proving ability also improves as it trains. We propose novel methods for hindsight relabeling on proof search trees to significantly improve the agent's sample efficiency in both tasks. Experiments on 3 axiomatic domains (propositional logic, arithmetic and group theory) demonstrate that our agent can bootstrap from only the axioms, self-improving in generating true and challenging conjectures and in finding proofs.

Via

Abstract:Skills are temporal abstractions that are intended to improve reinforcement learning (RL) performance through hierarchical RL. Despite our intuition about the properties of an environment that make skills useful, a precise characterization has been absent. We provide the first such characterization, focusing on the utility of deterministic skills in deterministic sparse-reward environments with finite action spaces. We show theoretically and empirically that RL performance gain from skills is worse in environments where solutions to states are less compressible. Additional theoretical results suggest that skills benefit exploration more than they benefit learning from existing experience, and that using unexpressive skills such as macroactions may worsen RL performance. We hope our findings can guide research on automatic skill discovery and help RL practitioners better decide when and how to use skills.

Via

Abstract:Inductive reasoning is a core problem-solving capacity: humans can identify underlying principles from a few examples, which can then be robustly generalized to novel scenarios. Recent work has evaluated large language models (LLMs) on inductive reasoning tasks by directly prompting them yielding "in context learning." This can work well for straightforward inductive tasks, but performs very poorly on more complex tasks such as the Abstraction and Reasoning Corpus (ARC). In this work, we propose to improve the inductive reasoning ability of LLMs by generating explicit hypotheses at multiple levels of abstraction: we prompt the LLM to propose multiple abstract hypotheses about the problem, in natural language, then implement the natural language hypotheses as concrete Python programs. These programs can be directly verified by running on the observed examples and generalized to novel inputs. Because of the prohibitive cost of generation with state-of-the-art LLMs, we consider a middle step to filter the set of hypotheses that will be implemented into programs: we either ask the LLM to summarize into a smaller set of hypotheses, or ask human annotators to select a subset of the hypotheses. We verify our pipeline's effectiveness on the ARC visual inductive reasoning benchmark, its variant 1D-ARC, and string transformation dataset SyGuS. On a random 40-problem subset of ARC, our automated pipeline using LLM summaries achieves 27.5% accuracy, significantly outperforming the direct prompting baseline (accuracy of 12.5%). With the minimal human input of selecting from LLM-generated candidates, the performance is boosted to 37.5%. (And we argue this is a lower bound on the performance of our approach without filtering.) Our ablation studies show that abstract hypothesis generation and concrete program representations are both beneficial for LLMs to perform inductive reasoning tasks.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Language models often achieve higher accuracy when reasoning step-by-step in complex tasks. However, their reasoning can be unsound, inconsistent, or rely on undesirable prior assumptions. To tackle these issues, we introduce a class of tools for language models called guides that use state and incremental constraints to guide generation. A guide can be invoked by the model to constrain its own generation to a set of valid statements given by the tool. In turn, the model's choices can change the guide's state. We show how a general system for logical reasoning can be used as a guide, which we call LogicGuide. Given a reasoning problem in natural language, a model can formalize its assumptions for LogicGuide and then guarantee that its reasoning steps are sound. In experiments with the PrOntoQA and ProofWriter reasoning datasets, LogicGuide significantly improves the performance of GPT-3, GPT-3.5 Turbo and LLaMA (accuracy gains up to 35%). LogicGuide also drastically reduces content effects: the interference of prior and current assumptions that both humans and language models have been shown to suffer from. Finally, we explore bootstrapping LLaMA 13B from its own reasoning and find that LogicGuide is critical: by training only on certified self-generated reasoning, LLaMA can self-improve, avoiding learning from its own hallucinations.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Automatically generating high-quality step-by-step solutions to math word problems has many applications in education. Recently, combining large language models (LLMs) with external tools to perform complex reasoning and calculation has emerged as a promising direction for solving math word problems, but prior approaches such as Program-Aided Language model (PAL) are biased towards simple procedural problems and less effective for problems that require declarative reasoning. We propose an approach that combines an LLM that can incrementally formalize word problems as a set of variables and equations with an external symbolic solver that can solve the equations. Our approach achieves comparable accuracy to the original PAL on the GSM8K benchmark of math word problems and outperforms PAL by an absolute 20% on ALGEBRA, a new dataset of more challenging word problems extracted from Algebra textbooks. Our work highlights the benefits of using declarative and incremental representations when interfacing with an external tool for solving complex math word problems. Our data and prompts are publicly available at https://github.com/joyheyueya/declarative-math-word-problem.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Despite recent success in large language model (LLM) reasoning, LLMs still struggle with hierarchical multi-step reasoning like generating complex programs. In these cases, humans often start with a high-level algorithmic design and implement each part gradually. We introduce Parsel, a framework enabling automatic implementation and validation of complex algorithms with code LLMs, based on hierarchical function descriptions in natural language. Parsel can be used across domains requiring hierarchical reasoning, e.g. code synthesis, theorem proving, and robotic planning. We demonstrate Parsel's capabilities by using it to generate complex programs that cannot currently be automatically implemented from one description and backtranslating Python programs in the APPS dataset. Beyond modeling capabilities, Parsel allows problem-solving with high-level algorithmic designs, benefiting both students and professional programmers.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:General mathematical reasoning is computationally undecidable, but humans routinely solve new problems. Moreover, discoveries developed over centuries are taught to subsequent generations quickly. What structure enables this, and how might that inform automated mathematical reasoning? We posit that central to both puzzles is the structure of procedural abstractions underlying mathematics. We explore this idea in a case study on 5 sections of beginning algebra on the Khan Academy platform. To define a computational foundation, we introduce Peano, a theorem-proving environment where the set of valid actions at any point is finite. We use Peano to formalize introductory algebra problems and axioms, obtaining well-defined search problems. We observe existing reinforcement learning methods for symbolic reasoning to be insufficient to solve harder problems. Adding the ability to induce reusable abstractions ("tactics") from its own solutions allows an agent to make steady progress, solving all problems. Furthermore, these abstractions induce an order to the problems, seen at random during training. The recovered order has significant agreement with the expert-designed Khan Academy curriculum, and second-generation agents trained on the recovered curriculum learn significantly faster. These results illustrate the synergistic role of abstractions and curricula in the cultural transmission of mathematics.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Humans tame the complexity of mathematical reasoning by developing hierarchies of abstractions. With proper abstractions, solutions to hard problems can be expressed concisely, thus making them more likely to be found. In this paper, we propose Learning Mathematical Abstractions (LEMMA): an algorithm that implements this idea for reinforcement learning agents in mathematical domains. LEMMA augments Expert Iteration with an abstraction step, where solutions found so far are revisited and rewritten in terms of new higher-level actions, which then become available to solve new problems. We evaluate LEMMA on two mathematical reasoning tasks--equation solving and fraction simplification--in a step-by-step fashion. In these two domains, LEMMA improves the ability of an existing agent, both solving more problems and generalizing more effectively to harder problems than those seen during training.

Via