A remarkable ability of human beings resides in compositional reasoning, i.e., the capacity to make "infinite use of finite means". However, current large vision-language foundation models (VLMs) fall short of such compositional abilities due to their "bag-of-words" behaviors and inability to construct words that correctly represent visual entities and the relations among the entities. To this end, we propose CoVLM, which can guide the LLM to explicitly compose visual entities and relationships among the text and dynamically communicate with the vision encoder and detection network to achieve vision-language communicative decoding. Specifically, we first devise a set of novel communication tokens for the LLM, for dynamic communication between the visual detection system and the language system. A communication token is generated by the LLM following a visual entity or a relation, to inform the detection network to propose regions that are relevant to the sentence generated so far. The proposed regions-of-interests (ROIs) are then fed back into the LLM for better language generation contingent on the relevant regions. The LLM is thus able to compose the visual entities and relationships through the communication tokens. The vision-to-language and language-to-vision communication are iteratively performed until the entire sentence is generated. Our framework seamlessly bridges the gap between visual perception and LLMs and outperforms previous VLMs by a large margin on compositional reasoning benchmarks (e.g., ~20% in HICO-DET mAP, ~14% in Cola top-1 accuracy, and ~3% on ARO top-1 accuracy). We also achieve state-of-the-art performances on traditional vision-language tasks such as referring expression comprehension and visual question answering.
Image inpainting for completing complicated semantic environments and diverse hole patterns of corrupted images is challenging even for state-of-the-art learning-based inpainting methods trained on large-scale data. A reference image capturing the same scene of a corrupted image offers informative guidance for completing the corrupted image as it shares similar texture and structure priors to that of the holes of the corrupted image. In this work, we propose a transformer-based encoder-decoder network, named TransRef, for reference-guided image inpainting. Specifically, the guidance is conducted progressively through a reference embedding procedure, in which the referencing features are subsequently aligned and fused with the features of the corrupted image. For precise utilization of the reference features for guidance, a reference-patch alignment (Ref-PA) module is proposed to align the patch features of the reference and corrupted images and harmonize their style differences, while a reference-patch transformer (Ref-PT) module is proposed to refine the embedded reference feature. Moreover, to facilitate the research of reference-guided image restoration tasks, we construct a publicly accessible benchmark dataset containing 50K pairs of input and reference images. Both quantitative and qualitative evaluations demonstrate the efficacy of the reference information and the proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods in completing complex holes. Code and dataset can be accessed at https://github.com/Cameltr/TransRef.