Automatic intracranial hemorrhage segmentation in 3D non-contrast head CT (NCCT) scans is significant in clinical practice. Existing hemorrhage segmentation methods usually ignores the anisotropic nature of the NCCT, and are evaluated on different in-house datasets with distinct metrics, making it highly challenging to improve segmentation performance and perform objective comparisons among different methods. The INSTANCE 2022 was a grand challenge held in conjunction with the 2022 International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI). It is intended to resolve the above-mentioned problems and promote the development of both intracranial hemorrhage segmentation and anisotropic data processing. The INSTANCE released a training set of 100 cases with ground-truth and a validation set with 30 cases without ground-truth labels that were available to the participants. A held-out testing set with 70 cases is utilized for the final evaluation and ranking. The methods from different participants are ranked based on four metrics, including Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), Hausdorff Distance (HD), Relative Volume Difference (RVD) and Normalized Surface Dice (NSD). A total of 13 teams submitted distinct solutions to resolve the challenges, making several baseline models, pre-processing strategies and anisotropic data processing techniques available to future researchers. The winner method achieved an average DSC of 0.6925, demonstrating a significant growth over our proposed baseline method. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed INSTANCE challenge releases the first intracranial hemorrhage segmentation benchmark, and is also the first challenge that intended to resolve the anisotropic problem in 3D medical image segmentation, which provides new alternatives in these research fields.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is having a tremendous impact across most areas of science. Applications of AI in healthcare have the potential to improve our ability to detect, diagnose, prognose, and intervene on human disease. For AI models to be used clinically, they need to be made safe, reproducible and robust, and the underlying software framework must be aware of the particularities (e.g. geometry, physiology, physics) of medical data being processed. This work introduces MONAI, a freely available, community-supported, and consortium-led PyTorch-based framework for deep learning in healthcare. MONAI extends PyTorch to support medical data, with a particular focus on imaging, and provide purpose-specific AI model architectures, transformations and utilities that streamline the development and deployment of medical AI models. MONAI follows best practices for software-development, providing an easy-to-use, robust, well-documented, and well-tested software framework. MONAI preserves the simple, additive, and compositional approach of its underlying PyTorch libraries. MONAI is being used by and receiving contributions from research, clinical and industrial teams from around the world, who are pursuing applications spanning nearly every aspect of healthcare.
Federated learning (FL) enables building robust and generalizable AI models by leveraging diverse datasets from multiple collaborators without centralizing the data. We created NVIDIA FLARE as an open-source software development kit (SDK) to make it easier for data scientists to use FL in their research and real-world applications. The SDK includes solutions for state-of-the-art FL algorithms and federated machine learning approaches, which facilitate building workflows for distributed learning across enterprises and enable platform developers to create a secure, privacy-preserving offering for multiparty collaboration utilizing homomorphic encryption or differential privacy. The SDK is a lightweight, flexible, and scalable Python package, and allows researchers to bring their data science workflows implemented in any training libraries (PyTorch, TensorFlow, XGBoost, or even NumPy) and apply them in real-world FL settings. This paper introduces the key design principles of FLARE and illustrates some use cases (e.g., COVID analysis) with customizable FL workflows that implement different privacy-preserving algorithms. Code is available at https://github.com/NVIDIA/NVFlare.
Head and neck tumor segmentation challenge (HECKTOR) 2022 offers a platform for researchers to compare their solutions to segmentation of tumors and lymph nodes from 3D CT and PET images. In this work, we describe our solution to HECKTOR 2022 segmentation task. We re-sample all images to a common resolution, crop around head and neck region, and train SegResNet semantic segmentation network from MONAI. We use 5-fold cross validation to select best model checkpoints. The final submission is an ensemble of 15 models from 3 runs. Our solution (team name NVAUTO) achieves the 1st place on the HECKTOR22 challenge leaderboard with an aggregated dice score of 0.78802.
Intracranial hemorrhage segmentation challenge (INSTANCE 2022) offers a platform for researchers to compare their solutions to segmentation of hemorrhage stroke regions from 3D CTs. In this work, we describe our solution to INSTANCE 2022. We use a 2D segmentation network, SegResNet from MONAI, operating slice-wise without resampling. The final submission is an ensemble of 18 models. Our solution (team name NVAUTO) achieves the top place in terms of Dice metric (0.721), and overall rank 2. It is implemented with Auto3DSeg.
Ischemic Stroke Lesion Segmentation challenge (ISLES 2022) offers a platform for researchers to compare their solutions to 3D segmentation of ischemic stroke regions from 3D MRIs. In this work, we describe our solution to ISLES 2022 segmentation task. We re-sample all images to a common resolution, use two input MRI modalities (DWI and ADC) and train SegResNet semantic segmentation network from MONAI. The final submission is an ensemble of 15 models (from 3 runs of 5-fold cross validation). Our solution (team name NVAUTO) achieves the top place in terms of Dice metric (0.824), and overall rank 2 (based on the combined metric ranking).
Split learning (SL) has been proposed to train deep learning models in a decentralized manner. For decentralized healthcare applications with vertical data partitioning, SL can be beneficial as it allows institutes with complementary features or images for a shared set of patients to jointly develop more robust and generalizable models. In this work, we propose "Split-U-Net" and successfully apply SL for collaborative biomedical image segmentation. Nonetheless, SL requires the exchanging of intermediate activation maps and gradients to allow training models across different feature spaces, which might leak data and raise privacy concerns. Therefore, we also quantify the amount of data leakage in common SL scenarios for biomedical image segmentation and provide ways to counteract such leakage by applying appropriate defense strategies.
In-utero fetal MRI is emerging as an important tool in the diagnosis and analysis of the developing human brain. Automatic segmentation of the developing fetal brain is a vital step in the quantitative analysis of prenatal neurodevelopment both in the research and clinical context. However, manual segmentation of cerebral structures is time-consuming and prone to error and inter-observer variability. Therefore, we organized the Fetal Tissue Annotation (FeTA) Challenge in 2021 in order to encourage the development of automatic segmentation algorithms on an international level. The challenge utilized FeTA Dataset, an open dataset of fetal brain MRI reconstructions segmented into seven different tissues (external cerebrospinal fluid, grey matter, white matter, ventricles, cerebellum, brainstem, deep grey matter). 20 international teams participated in this challenge, submitting a total of 21 algorithms for evaluation. In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of the results from both a technical and clinical perspective. All participants relied on deep learning methods, mainly U-Nets, with some variability present in the network architecture, optimization, and image pre- and post-processing. The majority of teams used existing medical imaging deep learning frameworks. The main differences between the submissions were the fine tuning done during training, and the specific pre- and post-processing steps performed. The challenge results showed that almost all submissions performed similarly. Four of the top five teams used ensemble learning methods. However, one team's algorithm performed significantly superior to the other submissions, and consisted of an asymmetrical U-Net network architecture. This paper provides a first of its kind benchmark for future automatic multi-tissue segmentation algorithms for the developing human brain in utero.
Federated learning (FL) allows the collaborative training of AI models without needing to share raw data. This capability makes it especially interesting for healthcare applications where patient and data privacy is of utmost concern. However, recent works on the inversion of deep neural networks from model gradients raised concerns about the security of FL in preventing the leakage of training data. In this work, we show that these attacks presented in the literature are impractical in real FL use-cases and provide a new baseline attack that works for more realistic scenarios where the clients' training involves updating the Batch Normalization (BN) statistics. Furthermore, we present new ways to measure and visualize potential data leakage in FL. Our work is a step towards establishing reproducible methods of measuring data leakage in FL and could help determine the optimal tradeoffs between privacy-preserving techniques, such as differential privacy, and model accuracy based on quantifiable metrics.