Quantifying the degree of similarity between images is a key copyright issue for image-based machine learning. In legal doctrine however, determining the degree of similarity between works requires subjective analysis, and fact-finders (judges and juries) can demonstrate considerable variability in these subjective judgement calls. Images that are structurally similar can be deemed dissimilar, whereas images of completely different scenes can be deemed similar enough to support a claim of copying. We seek to define and compute a notion of "conceptual similarity" among images that captures high-level relations even among images that do not share repeated elements or visually similar components. The idea is to use a base multi-modal model to generate "explanations" (captions) of visual data at increasing levels of complexity. Then, similarity can be measured by the length of the caption needed to discriminate between the two images: Two highly dissimilar images can be discriminated early in their description, whereas conceptually dissimilar ones will need more detail to be distinguished. We operationalize this definition and show that it correlates with subjective (averaged human evaluation) assessment, and beats existing baselines on both image-to-image and text-to-text similarity benchmarks. Beyond just providing a number, our method also offers interpretability by pointing to the specific level of granularity of the description where the source data are differentiated.
We propose to extract meaning representations from autoregressive language models by considering the distribution of all possible trajectories extending an input text. This strategy is prompt-free, does not require fine-tuning, and is applicable to any pre-trained autoregressive model. Moreover, unlike vector-based representations, distribution-based representations can also model asymmetric relations (e.g., direction of logical entailment, hypernym/hyponym relations) by using algebraic operations between likelihood functions. These ideas are grounded in distributional perspectives on semantics and are connected to standard constructions in automata theory, but to our knowledge they have not been applied to modern language models. We empirically show that the representations obtained from large models align well with human annotations, outperform other zero-shot and prompt-free methods on semantic similarity tasks, and can be used to solve more complex entailment and containment tasks that standard embeddings cannot handle. Finally, we extend our method to represent data from different modalities (e.g., image and text) using multimodal autoregressive models.
Critical learning periods are periods early in development where temporary sensory deficits can have a permanent effect on behavior and learned representations. Despite the radical differences between biological and artificial networks, critical learning periods have been empirically observed in both systems. This suggests that critical periods may be fundamental to learning and not an accident of biology. Yet, why exactly critical periods emerge in deep networks is still an open question, and in particular it is unclear whether the critical periods observed in both systems depend on particular architectural or optimization details. To isolate the key underlying factors, we focus on deep linear network models, and show that, surprisingly, such networks also display much of the behavior seen in biology and artificial networks, while being amenable to analytical treatment. We show that critical periods depend on the depth of the model and structure of the data distribution. We also show analytically and in simulations that the learning of features is tied to competition between sources. Finally, we extend our analysis to multi-task learning to show that pre-training on certain tasks can damage the transfer performance on new tasks, and show how this depends on the relationship between tasks and the duration of the pre-training stage. To the best of our knowledge, our work provides the first analytically tractable model that sheds light into why critical learning periods emerge in biological and artificial networks.
We introduce Compartmentalized Diffusion Models (CDM), a method to train different diffusion models (or prompts) on distinct data sources and arbitrarily compose them at inference time. The individual models can be trained in isolation, at different times, and on different distributions and domains and can be later composed to achieve performance comparable to a paragon model trained on all data simultaneously. Furthermore, each model only contains information about the subset of the data it was exposed to during training, enabling several forms of training data protection. In particular, CDMs are the first method to enable both selective forgetting and continual learning for large-scale diffusion models, as well as allowing serving customized models based on the user's access rights. CDMs also allow determining the importance of a subset of the data in generating particular samples.
We describe a first step towards learning general-purpose visual representations of physical scenes using only image prediction as a training criterion. To do so, we first define "physical scene" and show that, even though different agents may maintain different representations of the same scene, the underlying physical scene that can be inferred is unique. Then, we show that NeRFs cannot represent the physical scene, as they lack extrapolation mechanisms. Those, however, could be provided by Diffusion Models, at least in theory. To test this hypothesis empirically, NeRFs can be combined with Diffusion Models, a process we refer to as NeRF Diffusion, used as unsupervised representations of the physical scene. Our analysis is limited to visual data, without external grounding mechanisms that can be provided by independent sensory modalities.
* TLDR: Physical scenes are equivalence classes of sufficient
statistics, and can be inferred uniquely by any agent measuring the same
finite data; We formalize and implement an approach to representation
learning that overturns "naive realism" in favor of an analytical approach of
Russell and Koenderink. NeRFs cannot capture the physical scenes, but
combined with Diffusion Models they can
We investigate whether prompts learned independently for different tasks can be later combined through prompt algebra to obtain a model that supports composition of tasks. We consider Visual Language Models (VLM) with prompt tuning as our base classifier and formally define the notion of prompt algebra. We propose constrained prompt tuning to improve performance of the composite classifier. In the proposed scheme, prompts are constrained to appear in the lower dimensional subspace spanned by the basis vectors of the pre-trained vocabulary. Further regularization is added to ensure that the learned prompt is grounded correctly to the existing pre-trained vocabulary. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on object classification and object-attribute classification datasets. On average, our composite model obtains classification accuracy within 2.5% of the best base model. On UTZappos it improves classification accuracy over the best base model by 8.45% on average.
Recovering the latent factors of variation of high dimensional data has so far focused on simple synthetic settings. Mostly building on unsupervised and weakly-supervised objectives, prior work missed out on the positive implications for representation learning on real world data. In this work, we propose to leverage knowledge extracted from a diversified set of supervised tasks to learn a common disentangled representation. Assuming each supervised task only depends on an unknown subset of the factors of variation, we disentangle the feature space of a supervised multi-task model, with features activating sparsely across different tasks and information being shared as appropriate. Importantly, we never directly observe the factors of variations but establish that access to multiple tasks is sufficient for identifiability under sufficiency and minimality assumptions. We validate our approach on six real world distribution shift benchmarks, and different data modalities (images, text), demonstrating how disentangled representations can be transferred to real settings.
We present Synergy Aware Forgetting Ensemble (SAFE), a method to adapt large models on a diverse collection of data while minimizing the expected cost to remove the influence of training samples from the trained model. This process, also known as selective forgetting or unlearning, is often conducted by partitioning a dataset into shards, training fully independent models on each, then ensembling the resulting models. Increasing the number of shards reduces the expected cost to forget but at the same time it increases inference cost and reduces the final accuracy of the model since synergistic information between samples is lost during the independent model training. Rather than treating each shard as independent, SAFE introduces the notion of a shard graph, which allows incorporating limited information from other shards during training, trading off a modest increase in expected forgetting cost with a significant increase in accuracy, all while still attaining complete removal of residual influence after forgetting. SAFE uses a lightweight system of adapters which can be trained while reusing most of the computations. This allows SAFE to be trained on shards an order-of-magnitude smaller than current state-of-the-art methods (thus reducing the forgetting costs) while also maintaining high accuracy, as we demonstrate empirically on fine-grained computer vision datasets.