Camera-based autonomous systems that emulate human perception are increasingly being integrated into safety-critical platforms. Consequently, an established body of literature has emerged that explores adversarial attacks targeting the underlying machine learning models. Adapting adversarial attacks to the physical world is desirable for the attacker, as this removes the need to compromise digital systems. However, the real world poses challenges related to the "survivability" of adversarial manipulations given environmental noise in perception pipelines and the dynamicity of autonomous systems. In this paper, we take a sensor-first approach. We present EvilEye, a man-in-the-middle perception attack that leverages transparent displays to generate dynamic physical adversarial examples. EvilEye exploits the camera's optics to induce misclassifications under a variety of illumination conditions. To generate dynamic perturbations, we formalize the projection of a digital attack into the physical domain by modeling the transformation function of the captured image through the optical pipeline. Our extensive experiments show that EvilEye's generated adversarial perturbations are much more robust across varying environmental light conditions relative to existing physical perturbation frameworks, achieving a high attack success rate (ASR) while bypassing state-of-the-art physical adversarial detection frameworks. We demonstrate that the dynamic nature of EvilEye enables attackers to adapt adversarial examples across a variety of objects with a significantly higher ASR compared to state-of-the-art physical world attack frameworks. Finally, we discuss mitigation strategies against the EvilEye attack.
Visual object tracking has seen significant progress in recent years. However, the vast majority of this work focuses on tracking objects within the image plane of a single camera and ignores the uncertainty associated with predicted object locations. In this work, we focus on the geospatial object tracking problem using data from a distributed camera network. The goal is to predict an object's track in geospatial coordinates along with uncertainty over the object's location while respecting communication constraints that prohibit centralizing raw image data. We present a novel single-object geospatial tracking data set that includes high-accuracy ground truth object locations and video data from a network of four cameras. We present a modeling framework for addressing this task including a novel backbone model and explore how uncertainty calibration and fine-tuning through a differentiable tracker affect performance.
Existing approaches for autonomous control of pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras use multiple stages where object detection and localization are performed separately from the control of the PTZ mechanisms. These approaches require manual labels and suffer from performance bottlenecks due to error propagation across the multi-stage flow of information. The large size of object detection neural networks also makes prior solutions infeasible for real-time deployment in resource-constrained devices. We present an end-to-end deep reinforcement learning (RL) solution called Eagle to train a neural network policy that directly takes images as input to control the PTZ camera. Training reinforcement learning is cumbersome in the real world due to labeling effort, runtime environment stochasticity, and fragile experimental setups. We introduce a photo-realistic simulation framework for training and evaluation of PTZ camera control policies. Eagle achieves superior camera control performance by maintaining the object of interest close to the center of captured images at high resolution and has up to 17% more tracking duration than the state-of-the-art. Eagle policies are lightweight (90x fewer parameters than Yolo5s) and can run on embedded camera platforms such as Raspberry PI (33 FPS) and Jetson Nano (38 FPS), facilitating real-time PTZ tracking for resource-constrained environments. With domain randomization, Eagle policies trained in our simulator can be transferred directly to real-world scenarios.
A variety of explanation methods have been proposed in recent years to help users gain insights into the results returned by neural networks, which are otherwise complex and opaque black-boxes. However, explanations give rise to potential side-channels that can be leveraged by an adversary for mounting attacks on the system. In particular, post-hoc explanation methods that highlight input dimensions according to their importance or relevance to the result also leak information that weakens security and privacy. In this work, we perform the first systematic characterization of the privacy and security risks arising from various popular explanation techniques. First, we propose novel explanation-guided black-box evasion attacks that lead to 10 times reduction in query count for the same success rate. We show that the adversarial advantage from explanations can be quantified as a reduction in the total variance of the estimated gradient. Second, we revisit the membership information leaked by common explanations. Contrary to observations in prior studies, via our modified attacks we show significant leakage of membership information (above 100% improvement over prior results), even in a much stricter black-box setting. Finally, we study explanation-guided model extraction attacks and demonstrate adversarial gains through a large reduction in query count.
Recent efforts in interpretable deep learning models have shown that concept-based explanation methods achieve competitive accuracy with standard end-to-end models and enable reasoning and intervention about extracted high-level visual concepts from images, e.g., identifying the wing color and beak length for bird-species classification. However, these concept bottleneck models rely on a necessary and sufficient set of predefined concepts-which is intractable for complex tasks such as video classification. For complex tasks, the labels and the relationship between visual elements span many frames, e.g., identifying a bird flying or catching prey-necessitating concepts with various levels of abstraction. To this end, we present CoDEx, an automatic Concept Discovery and Extraction module that rigorously composes a necessary and sufficient set of concept abstractions for concept-based video classification. CoDEx identifies a rich set of complex concept abstractions from natural language explanations of videos-obviating the need to predefine the amorphous set of concepts. To demonstrate our method's viability, we construct two new public datasets that combine existing complex video classification datasets with short, crowd-sourced natural language explanations for their labels. Our method elicits inherent complex concept abstractions in natural language to generalize concept-bottleneck methods to complex tasks.
The advancements in machine learning opened a new opportunity to bring intelligence to the low-end Internet-of-Things nodes such as microcontrollers. Conventional machine learning deployment has high memory and compute footprint hindering their direct deployment on ultra resource-constrained microcontrollers. This paper highlights the unique requirements of enabling onboard machine learning for microcontroller class devices. Researchers use a specialized model development workflow for resource-limited applications to ensure the compute and latency budget is within the device limits while still maintaining the desired performance. We characterize a closed-loop widely applicable workflow of machine learning model development for microcontroller class devices and show that several classes of applications adopt a specific instance of it. We present both qualitative and numerical insights into different stages of model development by showcasing several use cases. Finally, we identify the open research challenges and unsolved questions demanding careful considerations moving forward.
Generative models such as the variational autoencoder (VAE) and the generative adversarial networks (GAN) have proven to be incredibly powerful for the generation of synthetic data that preserves statistical properties and utility of real-world datasets, especially in the context of image and natural language text. Nevertheless, until now, there has no successful demonstration of how to apply either method for generating useful physiological sensory data. The state-of-the-art techniques in this context have achieved only limited success. We present PHYSIOGAN, a generative model to produce high fidelity synthetic physiological sensor data readings. PHYSIOGAN consists of an encoder, decoder, and a discriminator. We evaluate PHYSIOGAN against the state-of-the-art techniques using two different real-world datasets: ECG classification and activity recognition from motion sensors datasets. We compare PHYSIOGAN to the baseline models not only the accuracy of class conditional generation but also the sample diversity and sample novelty of the synthetic datasets. We prove that PHYSIOGAN generates samples with higher utility than other generative models by showing that classification models trained on only synthetic data generated by PHYSIOGAN have only 10% and 20% decrease in their classification accuracy relative to classification models trained on the real data. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of PHYSIOGAN for sensor data imputation in creating plausible results.
The IoT vision of a trillion connected devices over the next decade requires reliable end-to-end connectivity and automated device management platforms. While we have seen successful efforts for maintaining small IoT testbeds, there are multiple challenges for the efficient management of large-scale device deployments. With Industrial IoT, incorporating millions of devices, traditional management methods do not scale well. In this work, we address these challenges by designing a set of novel machine learning techniques, which form a foundation of a new tool, it IoTelligent, for IoT device management, using traffic characteristics obtained at the network level. The design of our tool is driven by the analysis of 1-year long networking data, collected from 350 companies with IoT deployments. The exploratory analysis of this data reveals that IoT environments follow the famous Pareto principle, such as: (i) 10% of the companies in the dataset contribute to 90% of the entire traffic; (ii) 7% of all the companies in the set own 90% of all the devices. We designed and evaluated CNN, LSTM, and Convolutional LSTM models for demand forecasting, with a conclusion of the Convolutional LSTM model being the best. However, maintaining and updating individual company models is expensive. In this work, we design a novel, scalable approach, where a general demand forecasting model is built using the combined data of all the companies with a normalization factor. Moreover, we introduce a novel technique for device management, based on autoencoders. They automatically extract relevant device features to identify device groups with similar behavior to flag anomalous devices.
In this paper, we present an approach to Complex Event Processing (CEP) that is based on DeepProbLog. This approach has the following objectives: (i) allowing the use of subsymbolic data as an input, (ii) retaining the flexibility and modularity on the definitions of complex event rules, (iii) allowing the system to be trained in an end-to-end manner and (iv) being robust against noisily labelled data. Our approach makes use of DeepProbLog to create a neuro-symbolic architecture that combines a neural network to process the subsymbolic data with a probabilistic logic layer to allow the user to define the rules for the complex events. We demonstrate that our approach is capable of detecting complex events from an audio stream. We also demonstrate that our approach is capable of training even with a dataset that has a moderate proportion of noisy data.