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"speech recognition": models, code, and papers

Improving Accent Identification and Accented Speech Recognition Under a Framework of Self-supervised Learning

Sep 15, 2021
Keqi Deng, Songjun Cao, Long Ma

Recently, self-supervised pre-training has gained success in automatic speech recognition (ASR). However, considering the difference between speech accents in real scenarios, how to identify accents and use accent features to improve ASR is still challenging. In this paper, we employ the self-supervised pre-training method for both accent identification and accented speech recognition tasks. For the former task, a standard deviation constraint loss (SDC-loss) based end-to-end (E2E) architecture is proposed to identify accents under the same language. As for accented speech recognition task, we design an accent-dependent ASR system, which can utilize additional accent input features. Furthermore, we propose a frame-level accent feature, which is extracted based on the proposed accent identification model and can be dynamically adjusted. We pre-train our models using 960 hours unlabeled LibriSpeech dataset and fine-tune them on AESRC2020 speech dataset. The experimental results show that our proposed accent-dependent ASR system is significantly ahead of the AESRC2020 baseline and achieves $6.5\%$ relative word error rate (WER) reduction compared with our accent-independent ASR system.

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Meta-Transfer Learning for Code-Switched Speech Recognition

Apr 29, 2020
Genta Indra Winata, Samuel Cahyawijaya, Zhaojiang Lin, Zihan Liu, Peng Xu, Pascale Fung

An increasing number of people in the world today speak a mixed-language as a result of being multilingual. However, building a speech recognition system for code-switching remains difficult due to the availability of limited resources and the expense and significant effort required to collect mixed-language data. We therefore propose a new learning method, meta-transfer learning, to transfer learn on a code-switched speech recognition system in a low-resource setting by judiciously extracting information from high-resource monolingual datasets. Our model learns to recognize individual languages, and transfer them so as to better recognize mixed-language speech by conditioning the optimization on the code-switching data. Based on experimental results, our model outperforms existing baselines on speech recognition and language modeling tasks, and is faster to converge.

* Accepted in ACL 2020. The first two authors contributed equally to this work 
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Synth2Aug: Cross-domain speaker recognition with TTS synthesized speech

Nov 24, 2020
Yiling Huang, Yutian Chen, Jason Pelecanos, Quan Wang

In recent years, Text-To-Speech (TTS) has been used as a data augmentation technique for speech recognition to help complement inadequacies in the training data. Correspondingly, we investigate the use of a multi-speaker TTS system to synthesize speech in support of speaker recognition. In this study we focus the analysis on tasks where a relatively small number of speakers is available for training. We observe on our datasets that TTS synthesized speech improves cross-domain speaker recognition performance and can be combined effectively with multi-style training. Additionally, we explore the effectiveness of different types of text transcripts used for TTS synthesis. Results suggest that matching the textual content of the target domain is a good practice, and if that is not feasible, a transcript with a sufficiently large vocabulary is recommended.

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End-to-End Speech Recognition With Joint Dereverberation Of Sub-Band Autoregressive Envelopes

Aug 09, 2021
Rohit Kumar, Anurenjan Purushothaman, Anirudh Sreeram, Sriram Ganapathy

The end-to-end (E2E) automatic speech recognition (ASR) offers several advantages over previous efforts for recognizing speech. However, in reverberant conditions, E2E ASR is a challenging task as the long-term sub-band envelopes of the reverberant speech are temporally smeared. In this paper, we develop a feature enhancement approach using a neural model operating on sub-band temporal envelopes. The temporal envelopes are modeled using the framework of frequency domain linear prediction (FDLP). The neural enhancement model proposed in this paper performs an envelope gain based enhancement of temporal envelopes. The model architecture consists of a combination of convolutional and long short term memory (LSTM) neural network layers. Further, the envelope dereverberation, feature extraction and acoustic modeling using transformer based E2E ASR can all be jointly optimized for the speech recognition task. The joint optimization ensures that the dereverberation model targets the ASR cost function. We perform E2E speech recognition experiments on the REVERB challenge dataset as well as on the VOiCES dataset. In these experiments, the proposed joint modeling approach yields significant improvements compared to baseline E2E ASR system (average relative improvements of 21% on the REVERB challenge dataset and about 10% on the VOiCES dataset).

* 8 pages with refrences, e2e asr 
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Challenges and Opportunities of Speech Recognition for Bengali Language

Sep 27, 2021
M. F. Mridha, Abu Quwsar Ohi, Md. Abdul Hamid, Muhammad Mostafa Monowar

Speech recognition is a fascinating process that offers the opportunity to interact and command the machine in the field of human-computer interactions. Speech recognition is a language-dependent system constructed directly based on the linguistic and textual properties of any language. Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems are currently being used to translate speech to text flawlessly. Although ASR systems are being strongly executed in international languages, ASR systems' implementation in the Bengali language has not reached an acceptable state. In this research work, we sedulously disclose the current status of the Bengali ASR system's research endeavors. In what follows, we acquaint the challenges that are mostly encountered while constructing a Bengali ASR system. We split the challenges into language-dependent and language-independent challenges and guide how the particular complications may be overhauled. Following a rigorous investigation and highlighting the challenges, we conclude that Bengali ASR systems require specific construction of ASR architectures based on the Bengali language's grammatical and phonetic structure.

* Accepted in Artificial Intelligence Review 
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Building state-of-the-art distant speech recognition using the CHiME-4 challenge with a setup of speech enhancement baseline

Mar 27, 2018
Szu-Jui Chen, Aswin Shanmugam Subramanian, Hainan Xu, Shinji Watanabe

This paper describes a new baseline system for automatic speech recognition (ASR) in the CHiME-4 challenge to promote the development of noisy ASR in speech processing communities by providing 1) state-of-the-art system with a simplified single system comparable to the complicated top systems in the challenge, 2) publicly available and reproducible recipe through the main repository in the Kaldi speech recognition toolkit. The proposed system adopts generalized eigenvalue beamforming with bidirectional long short-term memory (LSTM) mask estimation. We also propose to use a time delay neural network (TDNN) based on the lattice-free version of the maximum mutual information (LF-MMI) trained with augmented all six microphones plus the enhanced data after beamforming. Finally, we use a LSTM language model for lattice and n-best re-scoring. The final system achieved 2.74\% WER for the real test set in the 6-channel track, which corresponds to the 2nd place in the challenge. In addition, the proposed baseline recipe includes four different speech enhancement measures, short-time objective intelligibility measure (STOI), extended STOI (eSTOI), perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) and speech distortion ratio (SDR) for the simulation test set. Thus, the recipe also provides an experimental platform for speech enhancement studies with these performance measures.

* Submitted for Interspeech 2018 
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A Fine-tuned Wav2vec 2.0/HuBERT Benchmark For Speech Emotion Recognition, Speaker Verification and Spoken Language Understanding

Nov 04, 2021
Yingzhi Wang, Abdelmoumene Boumadane, Abdelwahab Heba

Self-supervised speech representations such as wav2vec 2.0 and HuBERT are making revolutionary progress in Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR). However, self-supervised models have not been totally proved to produce better performance on tasks other than ASR. In this work, we explore partial fine-tuning and entire fine-tuning on wav2vec 2.0 and HuBERT pre-trained models for three non-ASR speech tasks : Speech Emotion Recognition, Speaker Verification and Spoken Language Understanding. We also compare pre-trained models with/without ASR fine-tuning. With simple down-stream frameworks, the best scores reach 79.58% weighted accuracy for Speech Emotion Recognition on IEMOCAP, 2.36% equal error rate for Speaker Verification on VoxCeleb1, 87.51% accuracy for Intent Classification and 75.32% F1 for Slot Filling on SLURP, thus setting a new state-of-the-art for these three benchmarks, proving that fine-tuned wav2vec 2.0 and HuBERT models can better learn prosodic, voice-print and semantic representations.

* 5 pages, 2 figures 
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Joined Audio-Visual Speech Enhancement and Recognition in the Cocktail Party: The Tug Of War Between Enhancement and Recognition Losses

Apr 16, 2019
Luca Pasa, Giovanni Morrone, Leonardo Badino

In this paper we propose an end-to-end LSTM-based model that performs single-channel speech enhancement and phone recognition in a cocktail party scenario where visual information of the target speaker is available. In the speech enhancement phase the proposed system uses a "visual attention" signal of the speaker of interest to extract her speech from the input mixed-speech signal, while in the ASR phase it recognizes her phone sequence through a phone recognizer trained with a CTC loss. It is well known that learning multiple related tasks from data simultaneously can improve performance than learning these tasks independently, therefore we decided to train the model by optimizing both tasks at the same time. This allowed us also to explore whether (and how) this joint optimization leads to better results. We analyzed different training strategies that reveal some interesting and unexpected behaviors. In particular, the experiments demonstrated that during optimization of the ASR phase the speech enhancement capability of the model significantly decreases and vice-versa. We evaluated our approach on mixed-speech versions of GRID and TCD-TIMIT. The obtained results show a remarkable drop of the Phone Error Rate (PER) compared to the audio-visual baseline models trained only to perform phone recognition phase.

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Modality Attention for End-to-End Audio-visual Speech Recognition

Nov 13, 2018
Pan Zhou, Wenwen Yang, Wei Chen, Yanfeng Wang, Jia Jia

Audio-visual speech recognition (AVSR) system is thought to be one of the most promising solutions for robust speech recognition, especially in noisy environment. In this paper, we propose a novel multimodal attention based method for audio-visual speech recognition which could automatically learn the fused representation from both modalities based on their importance. Our method is realized using state-of-the-art sequence-to-sequence (Seq2seq) architectures. Experimental results show that relative improvements from 2% up to 36% over the auditory modality alone are obtained depending on the different signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). Compared to the traditional feature concatenation methods, our proposed approach can achieve better recognition performance under both clean and noisy conditions. We believe modality attention based end-to-end method can be easily generalized to other multimodal tasks with correlated information.

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Learned In Speech Recognition: Contextual Acoustic Word Embeddings

Feb 18, 2019
Shruti Palaskar, Vikas Raunak, Florian Metze

End-to-end acoustic-to-word speech recognition models have recently gained popularity because they are easy to train, scale well to large amounts of training data, and do not require a lexicon. In addition, word models may also be easier to integrate with downstream tasks such as spoken language understanding, because inference (search) is much simplified compared to phoneme, character or any other sort of sub-word units. In this paper, we describe methods to construct contextual acoustic word embeddings directly from a supervised sequence-to-sequence acoustic-to-word speech recognition model using the learned attention distribution. On a suite of 16 standard sentence evaluation tasks, our embeddings show competitive performance against a word2vec model trained on the speech transcriptions. In addition, we evaluate these embeddings on a spoken language understanding task, and observe that our embeddings match the performance of text-based embeddings in a pipeline of first performing speech recognition and then constructing word embeddings from transcriptions.

* Accepted at ICASSP 2019, 5 pages, 1 figure, 3 tables 
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