Much research effort is being applied to the task of compressing the knowledge of self-supervised models, which are powerful, yet large and memory consuming. In this work, we show that the original method of knowledge distillation (and its more recently proposed extension, decoupled knowledge distillation) can be applied to the task of distilling HuBERT. In contrast to methods that focus on distilling internal features, this allows for more freedom in the network architecture of the compressed model. We thus propose to distill HuBERT's Transformer layers into an LSTM-based distilled model that reduces the number of parameters even below DistilHuBERT and at the same time shows improved performance in automatic speech recognition.
Since its inception, the field of deep speech enhancement has been dominated by predictive (discriminative) approaches, such as spectral mapping or masking. Recently, however, novel generative approaches have been applied to speech enhancement, attaining good denoising performance with high subjective quality scores. At the same time, advances in deep learning also allowed for the creation of neural network-based metrics, which have desirable traits such as being able to work without a reference (non-intrusively). Since generatively enhanced speech tends to exhibit radically different residual distortions, its evaluation using instrumental speech metrics may behave differently compared to predictively enhanced speech. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of the same speech enhancement backbone trained under predictive and generative paradigms on a variety of metrics and show that intrusive and non-intrusive measures correlate differently for each paradigm. This analysis motivates the search for metrics that can together paint a complete and unbiased picture of speech enhancement performance, irrespective of the model's training process.
* Submitted to ITG Conference on Speech Communication
In large part due to their implicit semantic modeling, self-supervised learning (SSL) methods have significantly increased the performance of valence recognition in speech emotion recognition (SER) systems. Yet, their large size may often hinder practical implementations. In this work, we take HuBERT as an example of an SSL model and analyze the relevance of each of its layers for SER. We show that shallow layers are more important for arousal recognition while deeper layers are more important for valence. This observation motivates the importance of additional textual information for accurate valence recognition, as the distilled framework lacks the depth of its large-scale SSL teacher. Thus, we propose an audio-textual distilled SSL framework that, while having only ~20% of the trainable parameters of a large SSL model, achieves on par performance across the three emotion dimensions (arousal, valence, dominance) on the MSP-Podcast v1.10 dataset.
The SepFormer architecture shows very good results in speech separation. Like other learned-encoder models, it uses short frames, as they have been shown to obtain better performance in these cases. This results in a large number of frames at the input, which is problematic; since the SepFormer is transformer-based, its computational complexity drastically increases with longer sequences. In this paper, we employ the SepFormer in a speech enhancement task and show that by replacing the learned-encoder features with a magnitude short-time Fourier transform (STFT) representation, we can use long frames without compromising perceptual enhancement performance. We obtained equivalent quality and intelligibility evaluation scores while reducing the number of operations by a factor of approximately 8 for a 10-second utterance.